阿房宫赋特殊句式

阿房宫赋特殊句式

【范文精选】阿房宫赋特殊句式

【范文大全】阿房宫赋特殊句式

【专家解析】阿房宫赋特殊句式

【优秀范文】阿房宫赋特殊句式

范文一:《六国论》《阿房宫赋》词类活用、特殊句式

《六国论》《阿房宫赋》词类活用、特殊句式

一、词类活用。

1 李牧连却之( )

2 始速祸焉( )

3 日削月割( )

4 以事秦之心礼天下之奇才( ) 5 不能独完( )

6 义不赂秦( )

7 六王毕,四海一( )

8 骊山北构而西折( )

9 廊腰缦回,檐牙高啄( ) 10未云何龙 不霁何虹( ) 11辞楼下殿,辇来于秦( ) 12朝歌夜弦,为秦宫人( ) 13燕赵之收藏,韩魏之经营( 14鼎铛玉石( )

15楚人一炬,可怜焦土( ) 16后人哀之而不鉴之( )

17蜂房水涡,矗不知乎几千万落( 18族秦者,秦也( )

二、特殊句式。

1 斯用兵之效也( )

2 为国者无使为积威之所劫哉( 3 洎牧以谗诛( )

4 赵尝五战于秦( )

5 其势弱于秦( )

6 苟以天下之大( )

7 侵之愈急( )

8 灭六国者,六国也,非秦也。( 9 长桥卧波,未云何龙。( )10谁得而族灭也( )

11戍卒叫,函谷举( )

12使负栋之柱,多于南亩之农夫。( 13秦人不暇自哀( ) ) ) ) ) )

范文二:14课《阿房宫赋》—词语、句式归纳

14课《阿房宫赋》—词语、句式归纳

一、一词多义:

统一(数词活用为动词)

一肌一容 全部;每一处

楚人一炬 一把 (数词)

一 上食埃土,下饮黄泉,用心一也 专一 (形容词)

而或长烟一空 全,都(副词)

相同

族秦者,秦也 使„„灭族

族 非我族类,其心必异 家族

云气不待族而雨,草木不待黄而落 聚结

可怜焦土

可怜 可怜身上衣正单,心忧炭贱愿天寒

可怜九月初三夜,露似珍珠月似弓 可惜

可怜夜半虚前席,不问苍生问鬼神

虚词“焉”和“而”的用法

1.盘盘焉,囷囷焉,蜂房水涡 形容词尾,“„„的样子”

2.或师焉,或不焉 兼词,“于之”

焉 3.且焉置土石 疑问代词,“哪里”

4.焉用亡郑以陪邻 反问语气,“何必”

5.积土成山,风雨兴焉 兼词,“从哪里”

1.骊山北构而西折 顺接连词

2.不敢言而敢怒 转折连词

而 3.谁得而族灭也 连接状语与中心词的连词,表修饰

4.授之书而习其句读者 并列连词

5.学而时习之,不亦说乎 递进连词

二、词类活用:

1.名词活用为动词。

鼎铛玉石,金块玉砾。

铛,当成铁锅;石,当成石头;块,当成土块;砾,当成石子。

朝歌夜弦 弦:弹琴

楚人一炬,可怜焦土 炬:放火、焚烧(一把火 );焦土:化为焦土

未云何龙,不霁何虹 云,出现云;龙,出现龙;虹,出现虹。

2.名词直接做状语:

骊山北构而西折--------骊山:从骊山,表处所;北:向北。西,向西。表方向。

廊腰缦回-----------------缦:像丝绸一样 蜂房水涡------ -- 像蜂房像水涡一样

辇来于秦-----------------辇:乘辇车 朝歌夜弦----------在早晨、在夜里

鼎铛玉石,金块珠砾-----------鼎:把宝鼎;玉:把美玉;金:把黄金;珠:把珠宝。

1

3、名词使动用法:

族秦者,秦也。 族:使„„灭族(或名词作动词 灭族)

4、意动用法

后人哀之而不鉴之 鉴:以„„为借鉴

5、为动用法

后人哀之而不鉴之 哀:为„„哀

6、动词活用为名词

燕赵之收藏,韩魏之经营,齐楚之精英 指金银珠宝。 三、古今异义 古义: 古义:跑,奔,趋向 钩心斗角 直走咸阳 今义:比喻用尽心机,明争暗斗 今义:

古义:座,所 古义:收藏的金银珠宝等 几千万落 韩魏之经营

今义:下降,衰败 今义:筹划,计划管理

古义:喻金玉珍宝 古义:可惜

齐楚之精英 可怜

今义:喻各行各业出类拔萃的人才 今义:怜悯或值得怜悯;也指(数 量少或质量坏到)不值一提。

古义:天气冷暖;气氛

而气候不齐

今义:一个地区多年的气象情况

四、文言句式

1.判断句 主语后面用“者”表示停顿,谓语后面“也”表示判断。形式是“„„者„„也”。如:明星荧荧,开妆镜也

灭六国者,六国也。族秦者,秦也,非天下也。

2.倒装句

介词结构(状语)后置句

如:多于市人之言语。“比集市上众人的话语还多”。

宾语前置句 秦人无暇自哀

3、被动句 缦立远视,而望幸焉。戍卒叫,函谷举。

2

范文三:阿房宫赋名句默写

《阿房宫赋》理解性默写

姓名:______________ 得分:_________________

1、杜牧在《阿房宫赋》中用16个字“ ____ ___ , ____ , ______ , ____ !”简明扼要地交代了秦王朝灭亡的历史过程,和篇首“六王毕,四海一,蜀山兀,阿房出”的气势构成鲜明的对比。

2、《阿房宫赋》是 朝 (作者)写的 ___ (体裁)的典型代表。运用 _____ (手法),借写阿房宫的兴建毁灭,阐述 ____ 的道理。他与 _____ 被称为“小李杜”。

3、作者表达人人都想过好的生活,人同此心,心同此理的句子是:“ ___________ , ______ _____ 。秦爱纷奢,人亦念其家。”

4、作者用排比句渲染阿房宫所繁华奢靡,与老百姓的的劳作吃穿作对比,其中描写“乐声之多与市井言语对比”的句子是:“ ___ , _____ ”

5、《阿房宫赋》最终要说明的道理是:“ _______________ , ___________ ; ________ , __ _______________”。

6、作者向当朝统治者敲响警钟的句子:“ ____________ , _____________ ”。

7、《阿房宫赋》的文眼是:“ _________ ”。

8、《阿房宫赋》中作者泼墨写意,粗笔勾勒。言阿房宫占地之广,状其楼阁之高的句

子: ___ ___, _____ 。

9、《阿房宫赋》中从人们的主观感受写宫内歌舞盛况。既是以歌舞之纷繁衬托宫殿之众多,又为下文美女充盈宫室预作铺垫的句子是: , ; , 。

10、总括秦的纷奢是建立在对人民的剥削和掠夺之上的,并且还挥霍无度,将剥削来的钱财像泥沙一样的浪费掉,给人民带来了深重的灾难。揭露和控诉了秦的自私无道的语句是 ___ , ? 《阿房宫赋》理解性默写答案

1、戍卒叫,函谷举,楚人一炬,可怜焦土。

2、唐,杜牧,议论文/散文,借古讽今,天下兴亡,李商隐

3、一人之心,千万人之心也

4、管弦呕哑,多于市人之言语

5、灭六国者六国也,非秦也;族秦者秦也,非天下也。

6、后人哀之而不鉴之,亦使后人而复哀后人也

7、秦爱纷奢

8、覆压三百余里,隔离天日。

9、歌台暖响,春光融融;舞殿冷袖,风雨凄凄。

10、奈何取之尽锱铢,用之如泥沙?

范文四:阿房宫赋断句练习

阿房宫赋

杜牧

六王毕,四海一,蜀山兀,阿房出。覆压三百余里,隔离天日。骊山北构而西折,直走咸阳。二川溶溶,流入宫墙。五步一楼,十步一阁;廊腰缦回,檐牙高啄;各抱地势,钩心斗角。盘盘焉,囷囷焉,蜂房水涡,矗不知其几千万落。长桥卧波,未云何龙?复道行空,不霁何虹?高低冥迷,不知西东。歌台暖响,春光融融;舞殿冷袖,风雨凄凄。一日之内,一宫之间,而气候不齐。

妃嫔媵嫱,王子皇孙,辞楼下殿,辇来于秦。朝歌夜弦,为秦宫人。明星荧荧,开妆镜也;绿云扰扰,梳晓鬟也;渭流涨腻,弃脂水也;烟斜雾横,焚椒兰也。雷霆乍惊,宫车过也;辘辘远听,杳不知其所之也。一肌一容,尽态极妍,缦立远视,而望幸焉;有不得见者三十六年。 燕赵之收藏,韩魏之经营,齐楚之精英,几世几年,剽掠其人,倚叠如山;一旦不能有,输来其间。鼎铛玉石,金块珠砾,弃掷逦迤,秦人视之,亦不甚惜。

嗟乎一人之心千万人之心也秦爱纷奢人亦念其家奈何取之尽锱铢用之如泥沙使负栋之柱多于南亩之农夫架梁之椽多于机上之工女钉头磷磷多于在庾之粟粒瓦缝参差多于周身之帛缕直栏横槛多于九土之城郭管弦呕哑多于市人之言语使天下之人不敢言而敢怒独夫之心日益骄固戍卒叫函谷举楚人一炬可怜焦土

呜呼灭六国者六国也非秦也族秦者秦也非天下也嗟夫使六国各爱其人则足以拒秦使秦复爱六国之人则递三世可至万世而为君谁得而族灭也秦人不暇自哀而后人哀之后人哀之而不鉴之亦使后人而复哀后人也

范文五:阿房宫赋名句默写

1.嗟乎!使六国各爱其人,则足以拒秦;① ,② ,③ ? ④ ,⑤ ;⑥ ,亦使后人而复哀后人也。 (2013 安徽) 2.秦人不暇自哀,而后人哀之; , 。 (2013 辽宁、2011 广东) 3.秦爱纷奢,人亦念其家。 , 。 (2013 北京) 4.长桥卧波,未云何龙?复道行空, ?(2010 重庆) 5.灭六国者六国也,非秦也; , 。 (2009 北京) 6. 蜂房水涡,_______________。 (2009 福建) 7. 同是写秦朝暴政的,有《过秦论》中的“于是废先王之道,____________________” ,还 有《阿房宫赋》中的“使负栋之柱,________________________” 。 (2009 湖北)

范文六:特殊句式及其他

特殊句式及其他

(共3组,每组限时8分钟)

[一模题组]

1.(2013·南昌一模)It is comforting to see that ________, we are doing our part for the environment.

A.as small may be we

C.small as may be we B.as we may be small D.small as we may be

2.(2013·东北三校一模)I am certain by no means ________ his word since he has promised an amount of money to the poor.

A.he will break

C.broke B.will he break D.did he break

3.(2013·辽宁五校协作体第一次联考)________ about the man wearing sunglasses during night that he was determined to follow him.

A.So curious the detective was

B.So curious was the detective

C.How curious was the detective

D.How curious the detective was

4.(2013·青岛一模)Scientists are still wondering ________ the Egyptians built the pyramids so long ago.

A.how it is that

C.it is how that B.how is it that D.that how it is

5.(2013·安徽合肥三校一模)—Was it at 11 o'clock ________ your father came back last night?

—Yes, he is always coming back so late.

A.that

C.when B.while D.until

6.(2013·山东济宁一模)How close parents are to their children ________ a strong influence on the development of the children's characters.

A.having

C.has B.had D.have

7.(2013·安徽省芜湖三校一模)A recent study has found that the number of smokers

________ sharply over the past five years.

A.is increasing

B.are increasing

C.has been increasing

D.have been increasing

8.(2013·皖南八校第一次联考)He is only too ready to help others, seldom, ________, refusing them when they turn to him.

A.if never

C.if not B.if ever D.if anything

9.(2013·郑州一模)—Did you tell her the bad news?

—Yes, but I'd rather ________.

A.didn't

C.not have B.not D.hadn't

10.(2013·甘肃河西五市一模)Look! The ground is wet. It must have rained last night, ________?

A.hasn't it

C.mustn't it B.hadn't it D.didn't it

11.(2013·宝鸡一模)There is so much rain on the island that its annual rainfall reaches ________.

A.sixty inches as much as

B.as sixty inches much as

C.as much as sixty inches

D.as much sixty inches as

12.(2013·石家庄高三一模)—Have you seen the film Lost on Journey?

—Yeah, amazing! It's ________ than the films I have ever seen.

A.any less interesting

C.no more interesting B.much less interesting D.far more interesting

13.(2013·皖南八校第一次联考)A recent survey shows the number of people who shop in stores ________, while far more are shopping online.

A.decrease

C.is decreasing B.decreases D.are decreasing

14.(2013·咸阳一模)When we entered, we found lying on the ground ________ along with her parents.

A.was a girl

C.a girl was B.were a girl D.a girl were

15.(2013·安徽重点中学一模)Not only ________ to turn off the lights in the kitchen, but we also failed to lock the front door.

A.we forgot

C.did we forget B.forgot we D.we did forget

[二模题组]

1.(2013·陕西重点中学高三二模)We pursue happiness, thinking one day we will find it. But ________ it by seeking it.

A.rarely will we find

C.rarely will find we B.rarely we will find D.rarely find we will

2.(2013·天津12区二模)No sooner ________ down on bed ________ the telephone rang.

A.had he lain; than

C.did he lie; than B.had he lied; when D.had he laid; before

3.(2013·安徽蚌埠二检)Could it be in the restaurant ________ you had dinner with me yesterday ________ you lost your handbag?

A.where; when

C.that; which B.which; where D.where; that

4.(2013·河北石家庄二模)—________ has brought worldwide attention to China?

—Rapid and steady economic growth, of course.

A.What do you think it is

B.What do you think is it

C.What do you think it is that

D.What do you think is it that

5.(2013·湖南长沙二模)Either the judge or the lawyers ________ wrong on the case at that moment.

A.is

C.were B.are D.was

6.(2013·大连二模)We each ________ strong points, but each of us on the other hand ________ weak points.

A.have; have

C.have; has B.has; have D.has; has

7.(2013·咸阳二模)The murderer, together with his two brothers, ________ sentenced to death just now.

A.was

C.is B.were D.are

8.(2013·银川一中二模)—Are you pleased with what he has done?

—Not a bit. It couldn't be________.

A.so bad B.much better

C.any worse D.best

9.(2013·济南二模)It was during the Ming Dynasty ________ the Great Wall was repaired and extended to take on the appearance it has today.

A.when

C.what B.which D.that

10.(2013·陕西宝鸡二检)Not until he went abroad for further study ________ how attached he was to his parents.

A.that the realized

C.did he realize B.had he realized D.that he had realized

11.(2013·江西抚州五校二模)So absorbed ________ in our talk that my brother took a wrong turn on the way to the airport.

A.he was

C.is he B.was he D.he is

12.(2013·甘肃河西五市二模)In the middle of the forest ________, in which we often went fishing when I was a little child.

A.lies a deep lake

C.a deep lake lies B.a deep lake does lie D.does a deep lake lie

13.(2013·芜湖三校二模)I really can't think of ________ told me you were not coming back till tomorrow.

A.it was who that

C.that who was it B.who was it that D.who it was that

14.(2013·石家庄第二次质量检测)I don't believe you can do today's job with yesterday's methods and be in tomorrow's business, ________?

A.do I

C.can you B.don't I D.can't you

15.(2013·洛阳二模)This computer is worse than that one you bought last year, but it costs twice ________.

A.as many

C.so much B.as much D.so many

[押题题组]

1.—Amazingly, Zhuo Jun got first place for the “China's Got Talent”(中国达人秀) last night.

—So wonderfully ________ in the show that he deserved it.

A.did he perform

C.he performed B.had he performed D.he had performed

2.She realized that it was not the words but the way she spoke to Bruce ________ hurt him.

A.who

C.which B.whom D.that

3.The number of historic buildings which ________ has reached a surprising figure that we must be aware of.

A.has been pulled down

C.is being pulled down B.had been pulled down D.have been pulled down

4.—Jeremy rather than his friends ________ for the accident.

—Absolutely. He shouldn't have driven after being drunk.

A.are to be blamed

C.is to blame B.are to blame D.is to be blamed

5.In view of the global financial crisis, every possible means ________ to stimulate the economic development in China.

A.have tried

C.has tried B.have been tried D.has been tried

6.It was President Xi Jinping ________ visited the navy troops and urged to strengthen naval force on April 9,2013.

A.when

C.that B.which D.he

7.________ who had arrested him three times for carrying drugs.

A.Before George stood the policeman

B.Before George the policeman stood

C.Before the policeman stood George

D.Before George did the policeman stand

8.Kate had a terrible time this summer. Not a day ________ without having some .

unpleasantness with her sister at home.

A.she spent

C.did she spend B.she had spent D.had she spent

9.The Chinese government promised that under no circumstances ________ the efforts to provide universal and low-cost health care.

A.it would stop

C.would it stop B.it might stop D.might it stop

10.So quickly ________ is a possibility today may be a reality tomorrow.

A.are science and technology advancing that

B.science and technology advancing are that

C.science and technology are advancing what that

D.are science and technology advancing that what

解析:选D 考查特殊句式。句意:科学技术进步得如此之快以至于今天的可能性在明天也许就变成了现实。本句“so+adj./adv.”位于句首,句子要部分倒装,故助动词are应提到主语的前面。so ... that 引导一个结果状语从句,在这个从句中含有一个主语从句,主语从句缺主语,故用what引导。

11.When the millionaire was young, he was very poor. Only by doing part-time jobs during the summer holiday ________ afford to pay his college fees.

A.he could

C.can he B.could he D.he can

解析:选B 考查倒装和时态。句意:当这位百万富翁年轻的时候,他非常穷。只有在暑假做兼职工作他才能付得起大学的学费。“only+状语”置于句首时,句子应用部分倒装,此处说的是过去的事情,故选B。

12.—How unhappy your roommate looks!

—Yes, but he's not willing to tell me what it is ________ is troubling him.

A.what

C.as B.which D.that

解析:选D 考查强调句型。分析句子结构可知,此处为特殊疑问句的强调句式,其结构为“特殊疑问词+is+it+that+从句”,又因强调句在句中作tell的宾语,应用陈述句语序。故选D。

13.The smoggy weather has made us realize ________ terrible problems we are faced with.

A.how

C.that B.what D.which

解析:选B 考查感叹句。句意:雾霾天气让我们认识到我们面临的是多么严重的问题。terrible修饰句子的中心词problems,故用what。

14.Nothing that you say can change his mind, ________?

A.do you

C.can it B.don't you D.can't it

解析:选C 考查反意疑问句。句意:你说什么都不可能改变他的主意,难道不是吗?当陈述部分的主语是不定代词something, nothing等时,反意疑问部分的主语要用it。句中的nothing是表示否定含义的词,疑问部分用肯定形式,再根据谓语can可知反意疑问部分应用can it。

15.—Which one of these two dictionaries do you advise me to buy, Oxford or Longman? —Well, take Oxford. I think it is the ________ of the two.

A.best

C.good B.better D.well

解析:选B 考查形容词的比较级。句意:“牛津词典和朗文词典,你建议我买哪一本呢?”“哦,买牛津词典吧。这两本里我觉得牛津词典更好。”两者作比较,用比较级,因此选B。

范文七:4.特殊句式

第4章:特殊句式

【专题一】部分倒装

1. Not until he left his home _____ to know how important the family was for him. [2010-江西]

A. did he begin C. he began

B. had he begun D. he had begun

2. I have been living in the United States for twenty years, but seldom ____ so lonely as now.

[2007-辽宁] A. have I felt B. I had felt C. I have felt D. had I felt

3. I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means ____with my progress. [2006-重

庆]

A. the teacher is not satisfied

B. is the teacher not satisfied

C. the teacher is satisfied D. is the teacher satisfied

4. _____ you eat the correct foods ______ be able to keep fit and stay healthy. [2008-江苏] A. Only if; will you B. Only if; you will C. Unless; will you D. Unless; you will 5. Only then______ how much damage had been caused. [2006-陕西]

A. she realized B. she had realized C. had she realized D. did she realize

6. is the power of TV that it can make a person suddenly famous. [2009-辽宁]

A. Such

B. This

C. That D. So

7. So sudden ______ that the enemy had no time to escape. [2009-山东]

A. did the attack C. was the attack

B. the attack did D. the attack was

8. Unsatisfied 重庆] A. though was he B. though he was C. he was though D. was he though

9. _____, his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting. [2007-重庆] A. Strange as might it sound B. As it might sound strange C. As strange it might sound D. Strange as it might sound 10. _____, he talks a lot about his favorite singers after class. [2005-重庆]

A. A quiet student as he may be B. Quiet student as he may be

C. Be a quiet student as he may D. Quiet as he may be a student

11. ______ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off. [2006-湖北]

A. Would you be

【专题二】全部倒装

1. At the meeting place of the Yangtze River and the Jialing River______, one of the ten largest

cities in China.(2010-重庆)

A. lies Chongqing C. does lie Chongqing

B. Chongqing lies D. does Chongqing lie

B. Should you be D. Might you be

C. Could you be

2. John opened the door. There _____ he had never seen before.(2010-陕西)

A. a girl did stand B. a girl stood C. did a girl stand D. stood a girl

4. ______ a certain doubt among the people as to the practical value of the project. (2009-安徽)

A. It has

B. They have D. There remains

C. It remains

3. ---- Is everyone here?

---- Not yet. Look, there _____ the rest of our guests! (2010-江苏) A. come B. comes C. is coming D. are coming 5. Hearing the dog barking fiercely, away ______.(2009-上海)

A. fleeing the thief

B. was fleeing the thief

C. the thief was fleeing D. fled the thief

6. For a moment nothing happened. Then all shouting together.(2009-福建) A. voices had come B. came voices C. voices would come D. did voices come

7. Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason, and ______.(2008-辽宁) A. I was neither B. neither was I C. I was either D. either was I 8. — My room gets very cold at night. (2007-江苏)

— ___________.

A. So is mine B. So mine is C. So does mine D. So mine does 9. — It was careless of you to have left your clothes outside all night.

— My God! _______. (1999-上海)

A. So did I C. So were you

【专题三】强调句

1. John's success has nothing to do with good luck. It is years of hard work _____ has made him

what he is today.(2010-湖南)

A. why

B. when

C. which D. that

2. It was ____ he came back from Africa that year ____ he met the girl he would like to marry.

(2009-江西)

A. when; then

B. not; until

C. not until; that D. only; when 3. It was _____ back home after the experiment. (2004-湖北) A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that he didn’t go

C. not until midnight that he went

D. until midnight when he didn’t go

4. ---- ______ that he managed to get the information?

---- Oh, a friend of his helped him. (2005-山东)

A. Where was it C. How was it

B. What was it D. Why was it

B. So I did D. So did you

【专题四】反义疑问句

1. Sally’s never seen a play in the Shanghai Grand Theatre, ______?(2009-上海)

A. hasn’t she B. has she C. isn’t she D. is she

2. Sarah had her washing machine repaired the day before yesterday, she?(2006-广东)

A. had

B. did

C. hadn't D. didn't

3. He must be helping the old man to water the flowers, _______?(2009-陕西)

A. is he

B. isn’t he

C. must he D. mustn’t he

4. There is no light in the dormitory. They must have gone to the lecture, _____?(2005-上海春)

A. didn't they

C. mustn't they

B. don't they D. haven't they

5. There was a loud scream from the backstage immediately after the concert ended, ______ ?

(2005-上海) A. wasn’t there B. was there C. didn’t it D. did it

6. I’m sure she went to school by bus, _______?(2006-福建)

A. hadn’t you

B. wouldn’t you

C. aren’t I D. didn’t she

7. When you’ve finished with that book, don’t forget to put it back on the shelf, _____? (2007-

北京卷)

A. do you C. will you

【专题五】省略句

1. — What’s the matter with Della?

— Well, her parents wouldn't allow her to go to the party, but she still ______. (2009-江苏)

A. hopes to

B. hopes so

C. hopes not D. hopes for

2. One of the side of the board should be painted yellow, and ______. (2000-北京春)

A. the other is white C. the other white

B. another white D. another is white

B. don’t you D. won’t you

3. The experiment shows that proper amounts of exercise, if regularly, can improve our

health.(2010-浙江)

A. being carried out C. carried out

课后作业:1994-2010题组

1. The computer was used in teaching. As a result, not only_______, but students became more

interested in the lessons. (2009-全国I)

A. saved was teachers’ energy C. teachers’ energy was saved

B. was teachers’ energy saved D. was saved teachers’ energy

B. carrying out D. to carry out

2. Not until I came home last night ________ to bed. (2009-四川)

A. Mum did go B. did Mum go C. went Mum D. Mum went

3. Little _______ about her own safety, though she was in great danger herself. (2009-陕西)

A. did Rose care C. Rose does care

B. Rose did care D. does Rose care

4. It was announced that only when the fire was under control ___ to return to their homes.

(2008-江西)

A. the residents would be permitted B. had the residents been permitted C. would the residents be permitted D. the residents had been permitted

5. how much I loved them.(2008-重庆)

A. I realized

B. I had realized

C. had I realized D. did I realize

6. how much I loved them.(2008-重庆) A. I realized B. I had realized C. had I realized D. did I realize

7. If Joe' s wife won' t go to the party, _______.(2007-全国卷II)

A. he will either B. neither will he C. he neither will D. either he will

8. that Maric was able to set up new branches elsewhere.(2007-陕西)

A. So successful her business was

B. So successful was her business

C. So her business was successful D. So was her successful business 9. —How was the televised debate last night?

—Super! Rarely ______ so much media attention.(2007-上海) A. a debate attracted

B. did a debate attract

C. a debate did attract D. attracted a debate

10. Little _______ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way

in this business.(2007-安徽) A. he realized

C. didn't he realize

B. he didn't realize D. did he realize

11. —Did you see who the driver was ?

—No, so quickly _____ that I couldn’t get a good look at his face. (2007-上海春季)

A. did the car speed by B. the car speed by C. does the car speed by D. the car speeds by

12. Never in my wildest dreams ___ these people are living in such poor conditions.(2006-安徽)

A. I could imagine

B. could I imagine

C.I couldn’t imagine D. couldn’t I imagine 13. -Did Linda see the traffic accident? (2006-天津)

-No, no sooner impossible now does seem possible.

A. had she gone

B. she had gone

C. has she gone D. she has gone 14. — I reminded you not to forget the appointment. (2006-江西)

— ________.

A. So you did

B. So I do not

C. So did you D. So do I

15. _______homework did we have to do that we had no time to take a rest. (2006-福建) A. So much C. Too little 16. —It’s burning hot today, isn’t it?

—Yes. _____ yesterday.(2006-福建)

A. So was it

B. Too much D. So little

B. So it was

C. So it is D. So is it

17. So difficult it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom for advice.(2006-广东)

A. I did find

B. did I find

C. I have found D. have I found 18. At the foot of the mountain____(2006-四川)

A. a village lie C. does a village lie

B. lies a village D. lying a village

19. _______ by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other companies.

(2006-浙江) A. Only B. Just C. Still D. Yet

20. Just in front of our house _____ with a history of 1,000 years.(2006-上海春)

A. does a tall tree stand

B. stands a tall tree

C. a tall tree is standing D. a tall tree stands

21. Never before _______ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today.(2005-上海) A. has this city been B. this city has been C. was this city D. this city was

22. So little ____ with each other that the neighboring countries could not settle their difference.

(2005-上海春季)

A. they agreed

B. agreed they

C. did they agree D. they did agree 23. -Maggie had a wonderful time at the party.

- ______, and so did I. (2005-安徽)

A. So she had B. So had she C. So she did D. So did she 24. Only after my friend came . (2005-福建)

A. did the computer repair B. he repaired the computer C. was the computer repaired D. the computer was repaired 25. —Father, you promised!

—Well, . But it was you who didn’t keep your word first. (2005-湖北)

A. so was I C. so I was

B. so did I D. so I did

26. ______ about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research

(2005-江苏) A. so curious the couple was B. So curious were the couple C. How curious the couple were D. The couple was such curious

27. They have a good knowledge of English but little ___they know about German. (2005-天津)

A. have B. did

C. had D. do

28. Mary never does any reading in the evening, _________.(2005-陕西)

A. so does John B. John does too C. John doesn’t too D. nor does John

29. —Well. I do think the rabbit is a beautiful, gentle animal which can run very fast.

—__________.(2005-辽宁) A. So it is B. So is it C. So does it D. So it does

30. In the dark forests ________, some large enough to hold several English towns. (2005-辽宁)

A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand

31. Of the making of good books there is no end; neither_______ any end to their influence man’s

lives.(2004-广东) A. there is B. there are C. is there D. are there

32. Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else ______ such a beautiful palace.

(2004-辽宁)

A. can you find

B. you could find

C. you can find D. could you find

33. — I would never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible!

— _____.(2004-全国III)

A. Nor am I C. Same with me

B. Neither would I D. So do I

34. ____ snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic

in the forest. (2004-上海) A. Not only they brought B. Not only did they bring C. Not only brought they D. Not only they did bring 35. Only when your identity has been checked, _____. (2003-上海)

A. you are allowed in B. you will be allowed in

C. will you allow in D. will you be allowed in

36. Only in this way ____ to make improvement in the operating system. (2003-上海春季)

A. you can hope

B. you did hope

C. can you hope D. did you hope

37. The old couple have been married for 40 years and never once _____with each other. (2003全

国)

A. they had quarreled

B. they have quarreled

C. have they quarreled D. had they quarreled 38. ---- You forgot your purse when you went out.

---- Good heavens, ______. (2002上海)

A. so did I B. so I did C. I did so D. I so did

39. Not only __ interested in football but __ beginning to show an interest in it. (2002-上海春季)

A. the teacher himself is; all his student are C. is the teacher himself; are all his student

B. the teacher himself is; are all his student D. is the teacher himself; all his student are

40. ____, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John. (2001-上海)

A. As long as I have traveled B. Now that I have traveled so much C. Much as I have traveled D. As I have traveled so much

41. So difficult ______ it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English

well. (2001-上海)

A. I have felt

B. have I felt

C. I did feel D. did I feel

42. Only when the car was over ____ to his hometown. (2001-上海春季)

A. did the young soldier return B. the young soldier returned C. returned the young soldier D. the young soldier did return 43. Not a single song ____ at yesterday’s party. (2000-上海)

A. she sang

B. sang she

C. did she sing D. she did sing

44. I finally got a job I dreamed about. Never in my life _____ so happy. (2001-上海春季) A. did I feel B. I felt C. I had felt D. had I felt 45. _____ can you expect to get a pay rise. (2001-全国春季)

A. With hard work B. Although work hard

C. Only with hard work D. Now that he works hard

46. The old couples have been married for 40 years and never once ____ with each other. (2000-全国) A. they had quarreled B. they have quarreled C. have they quarreled D. had they quarreled 47. —David has made great progress recently.

—_____, and ______. (1997-上海) A. So he has; so you have B. So he has; so have you C. So has he; so have you D. So has he; so you have

48. Mother will wait for him to have dinner together, (1997-全国) A. However late is he B. However he is late C. However is he late D. However late he is

49. Not until all the dish died in the river _____ how serious the pollution was. (1995-全国)

A. did the villagers realized B. villagers realized

C. the villagers did realize D. didn’t the villagers realize 50. Little ____ about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself. (1994-上海)

A. does he care C. he cares

B. did he care D. he cared

51. It was from only a few supplies that she had bought in the village the hostess cooked

such a nice dinner.(2010-安徽) A. where B. that C. when D. which

52. It was not until midnight they reached the camp site. (2008-重庆) A. that B. when C. while D. as

53. It was in New Zealand ___ Elizabeth first met Mr. Smith.(2008-全国Ⅱ)

A. that B. how

C. which D. when

54. It was along the Mississippi River _____ Mark Twain spent much of his childhood. (2008-天津)

A. how

B. which

C. that D. where

55. It is what you do rather than what you say _______ matters. (2005-天津) A. that B. what C. which D. this

56. It was only with the help of the local guide ________.(2005-上海春)

A. was the mountain climber rescued B. that the mountain climber was rescued C. when the mountain climber was rescued D. then the mountain climber was rescued 57. he received the news that his lost daughter had been found.

(2004-福建)

A. because C. since

B. which D. that

58. It was only when I reread his poems recently_______ I began to appreciate their beauty.

(1998-全国)

A. until C. then

B. that D. so

59. It was about 600 years ago the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made.

(1997-全国) A. that B. until C. before D. when

60. It was not until 1920 regular radio broadcasts began. (1995-全国)

A. while C. that

B. which D. since

61. It was after he got what he had desired he realized it was not so important.

(2006-辽宁)

A. that

B. when

C. since D. as

62. It was not until she got home Jennifer realized she had lost her keys.(2006-全国2)

A. when

C. where

B. that D. before

63. .David said that it was because of his strong interest in literature _______ he chose the course.

(2006-上海春)

A. that

B. what

C. why D. how

64. It’s the first time that he has been to Australia, ? (2009-辽宁)

A. isn’t he

B. hasn’t he

C. isn’t it D. hasn’t it

65. You and I could hardly work together, ______?(2009-湖南)

A. could you C. couldn’t we

B. couldn’t I D. could we

66. (2006-全国2) A. do you B. can we C. will you D. shall we

67. He never said that he was good at mathematics, (2005-北京春)

A. was he

B. wasn't he

C. did he D. didn't he

68. Bill’s aim is to inform the viewers that cigarette advertising on TV is illegal, ____?(2004-上

海)

A. isn’t it

B. is it

C. isn’t be D. is he

69. ---- Alice, you feed the bird today, _______? (1999-全国)

--But I fed it yesterday.

A. do you B. will you C. didn't you D. don't you

70. Though _____ to see us, the professor gave us a warm welcome.(2010-全国2)

A. surprising

B. was surprised

C. surprised D. being surprised 71. —Have you got any particular plans for the coming holiday?

—Yes, _____, I’m going to visit some homes for the old in the city. (2008-安徽)

A. If ever

B. If busy

C. If anything D. If possible 72. —Who should be responsible for the accident? (2008-福建) —The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order . A. as told B. as are told C. as telling D. as they told

73. Sugar, when ____ with water, dissolves quickly.(2005-上海春季)

A. mixed

B. mixing

C. mix D. is mixed

74. Lucy’s new job paid twice as much as she had made _____ in the restaurant.(2008-山东)

A. working

B. work

C. to work D. worked

75. The research is so designed that once _____ nothing can be done to change it. (2002-全国) A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun

76. ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004-湖北)

A. Compare

B. When comparing

C. Comparing D. When compared

77. It shares me to say it, but I told a lie when _____ at the meeting by my boss. (2004-全国Ⅳ)

A. questioning B. having questioned C. questioned D. to be questioned

78. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ______. (1995-全国)

A. not to C. not do it

B. not to do D. do not to

范文八:特殊句式[1]

文言特殊句式

一、 被动句

至激于义理者不然 盖文王拘而演《周易》 屈原放逐,乃赋《离骚》 韩非囚秦,《说难》、《孤愤》 不拘于时

盖当蓼洲周公之被逮 不能容于远近 而君幸于赵王

臣诚恐见欺于王而负赵 虽万被戮,岂有悔哉 秦城恐不可得,徒见欺

永元中,举孝廉不行,连辟公府不就 吾属今为之虏矣 若属皆且为所虏

二、宾语前置

古之人不余欺也 句读之不知惑之不解 谁为哀者

钩党之捕遍于天下 大王来何操

沛公北向坐,张良西向侍 客何为者

不然,籍何以至此 如或知尔,则何以哉 居则曰,“不吾知也” 自书典所记,未之有也 何以知之

技经肯綮之未尝 今日之事何如 沛公安在

三、 定语后置

蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强 石之铿然有声者 持白璧一双

冠者五六人,童子六七人 求人可使报秦者

省略句

木直中绳,( )以为轮 藏之名山,传之其人 今以钟磬置水中

断头置头上,颜色不少变 激昂大义,蹈死不顾 亚父受玉斗,置之地 后数日驿至,果地震陇西 传以示美人及左右 竖子不足与谋

樊哙覆其盾于地,加彘肩上 将军战河北,臣战河南 遂于秦王会渑池 为击破沛公军 欲呼张良与俱去 今其智乃反不能及

军中无以为乐,请以剑舞 公视廉将军孰与秦王

秦时与臣游,项伯杀人,臣活之鼓瑟希,铿尔,舍瑟而作

词类活用:

名词活用作动词

非能水也 微风鼓浪 吾师道也 不耻相师

去今之墓而葬焉 其疾病而死

买五人之( )而函之

是时以大中丞抚吴者为魏私人 沛公欲王关中 沛公军霸上 籍吏民封府库 范增数目项王 刑人如恐不胜 如会同,端章甫 鼓瑟希

浴乎沂,风乎舞雩 三子者出,曾皙后

相如视秦王无意偿赵城,乃前曰 宦官惧其毁己,皆共目之 乃使其从者衣褐 左右欲刃相如

名词活用作状语

君子博学而日参省乎己 余自齐安舟行适临汝

事不目见耳闻,而臆断其有无 士大夫终不肯以小舟夜泊绝壁之下人皆得以隶使之 项伯乃夜驰之沛公军 吾得兄事之 常以身翼蔽沛公 头发上指,目眦尽裂 道芷阳间行

上食埃土,下饮黄泉 故令人持璧归,间至赵矣 而相如廷叱之 良庖岁更刀,割也

使动用法

虽大风浪不能鸣也 众不能堪,( )而扑之 安能屈豪杰之流 项伯杀人臣活之

沛公旦日从百余骑来见项王 拔剑撞而破之 比及三年可使足民 宁许以负秦曲 毕礼而归之 臣请完璧归赵

意动用法

吾从而师之 而耻学于师

与其身也则耻师焉 不耻相师

孔子师郯子、长弘、师襄、老聃大将军邓骘奇其才 先破秦入咸阳者王之 吾羞不忍为之下 且庸人尚羞之

形容词活用作名词

是故圣益圣愚益愚 此其志不在小 君安与项伯有故

形容词活用作动词

亦以明死生之大 素善留侯张良 秋毫不敢有所近 假舆马者,非利足也 不知将军宽之至此也

范文九:特殊句式1

理解与现代汉语不同的句式和用法

理解·要点诠释

重点点击

古代汉语与现代汉语的句法有许多是不同的,辨识这些不同,掌握文言文中有别于现代汉语的句式,是阅读文言文必需的能力。《考试大纲》明确列出六项需要掌握的内容:判断句、被动句、疑问句、宾语前置、成分省略和词类活用。

难点解剖

一、 判断句

二、被动句

三、倒装句

四、省略句

五、疑问句

六、否定句

七、固定句式

文言文中,有些虚词与虚词配合,或者虚词与实词(包括词组)配合,中间或前后插入一定成分,组成固定搭配的形式,称之固定句式。固定句式具有一定的整体意义,我们在阅读翻译时不要拆开理解。牢牢掌握了这些句式的变化,对快速、正确地进行文言文翻译有很大帮助。下面用列表的方式将文言常见固定句式列举出来,以便大家复习。

八、词类活用

在古汉语中,某个词属于哪一类词通常是比较固定的。但是,在一定的语言环境中,按照一定的语言习惯,某些词会失去它原来所属词类的意义和功能,而临时充当另一类词,这种现象就叫词类活用。 (一)名词作状语

状语是用在动词、形容词前面,起修饰、限制作用的。现代汉语中除了时间名词、方位名词外,一般名词不能用作状语,常常是副词充当状语。古汉语中,一旦名词的位置处于动词、形容词之前,起修饰、限制作用,而且它本身并不表示任何行为,这个名词就活用作状语了。这是古汉语中的一种特殊用法。翻译的规律是在这个名词前边加上相关的介词或动词。

下面分五个方面列表解析名词作状语。

(二)名词、数词用作动词

在古汉语中,有些名词、数词在一定的语言结构里,

可以临时作动词用,充当句子谓语。这种情况比较普遍,活用后的意义仍和这个名词的意义密切相关,只是动作化罢了。

由于名词、数词本身不是动词,用作动词,就具备了动词的特征。具体说来,大致有以下五种情况。

(三)形容词用作一般动词

在古汉语中,形容词一般用作补语、状语。形容词和动词一样,也能作谓语,但它不能带宾语,这时候还不算是形容词的活用。如果让形容词的后面带上宾语或者补

语,而又没有使动、意动的意味,那么这个形容词就是活用为一般动词了。

(四)形容词用作名词

在文言文中,形容词除一般用作定语、状语、谓语之外,有时也作名词用,以替代跟它性质、状态或特征有关的人或事物,在句子里充当主语或宾语,有时前面有“其”字、“之”字或数词。翻译时一般要补出中心语(名词),而以这个形容词作定语。

(五)动词用作名词

动词一般作句子的谓语,但有时也可以作名词用,以替代跟这动作有关的人或事物,在句子里充当主语或宾语,有时前面有“其”字或“之”字。

(六)名词、形容词、动词的使动用法

一般句子,主语是动作的施行者,宾语是动作的对象。如:“沛公至军,立诛杀曹无伤。”(《鸿门宴》)可翻译为:“沛公回到军营,立即杀了曹无伤。”当主语不施行动词(或活用为动词的形容词、名词)所表示的动作,而是主语使宾语施行这个动作时,就是使动用法了。也就是说,谓语所表示的动作不是主语施行的,而是主语使宾语施行的,谓语对宾语含有“使它怎样”的意思。如:“项伯杀

人,臣活之。”(《鸿门宴》)这不是说“臣”自己“活”,而说“臣”使“之”“活”。使动用法实际上是兼语式的简化,本来兼语式的结构是主语+动词+兼语+动词+宾语(或无宾语),现在简化为主语+动词+宾语,从而使语言简练。翻译时应恢复成兼语式,即主语+使+宾语+动词。

(七)名词、形容词的意动用法

所谓意动用法,就是形容词、名词用作动词后,主语对宾语含有“认为(觉得)它怎样”,或者主语把宾语“当作(看成)什么”。即句子在主观上认为宾语具有谓语所表示的状态和性质。例如“孔子登东山而小鲁”中的“小鲁”是孔子认为鲁国的地方小,这里的“小”是形容词临时用作意动词,含有“以鲁为小”的意思。

形容词意动用法,指的是形容词带上宾语后,表示当事者(主语)认为宾语具有这个形容词所表示的性质或状态。其译成现代汉语的公式为:主语+形容词+宾语=主语+觉得+宾语+形容词。一般可译为“认为„„”或“以„„为„„”,即“以+宾语+为+形容词”或“认为+宾语+形容

词”。如“大将军邓骘奇其才,累召不应”(《张衡传》),“奇”是意动用法,“才”是“奇”所带的宾语,“奇其才”就是“以其才为奇”,即“认为他的才干出众”。

名词意动用法,把名词放在宾语前充当动词,这个表意动的名词同宾语并不构成支配与被支配的关系,而是主语把宾语看成这个名词所表示的人或事物。翻译时可按下面这个格式:主语+以(或“把”)+宾语+为(或“看成”或“当作”)+表意动的名词。同样可译为“认为„„”或“以„„为„„”等。如“邑人奇之,稍稍宾客其父”,名词“宾客”是意动用法,“其父”是宾语,“宾客”与“其父”不是并列关系,也不是修饰关系,用动宾关系来译又不通,因而是意动,即“以其父为宾客”。

诱思·实例点拨

(2005重庆高考,12)

侯可字无可,华州华阴人。少倜傥不羁,以气节自许。既壮,尽易前好,笃志为学。随计入京,里中醵金赆行。比还,悉散其余与同举者,曰:“此金,乡里所以资应诏者也,不可以为他利。”且行,闻乡人病,念曰:“吾归,则彼死矣!”遂留不去。病者愈,辍己马载之,徒步而归。

孙沔征侬徭,请参军事,奏功得官,知巴州化城县。巴俗尚鬼而废医,唯巫言是用,娶妇必责财,贫人女至老不得嫁。可为约束,立制度,违者有罪,几变其习。再调华原主簿。富人有不占田籍而质人田券至万亩,岁责其租。可晨驰至富家,发椟出券归其主。郡吏赵至诚贪狡凶横,持守以下短长,前后莫能去。可暴其罪,荷枷置狱,言于大府诛之,闻者快服。

签书仪州判官。西夏寇边,使者使可按视,即以数十骑涉夏境,猝与之遇,亟分其骑为三四,令之曰:“建尔旗帜,旋山徐行。”夏人循环间见,疑以为诱骑不敢击。韩琦镇长安,荐知泾阳县。说渭源羌酋输地八千顷,因城熟羊③,以抚之。琦上其功。

可轻财乐义,急人之急,忧人之忧。与田颜为友。颜病重,千里求医,未归而颜死,目不瞑。人曰:“其待侯君乎?”且殓而可至,拊之乃瞑。颜无子,不克葬,可辛勤百营,鬻衣相役,卒葬之。方天寒,单衣以居,有馈白①②

金者,顾颜之妹处室,举以佐其奁具。一日自远归,家以告,适友人郭行扣门曰:“吾父病,医邀钱百千,卖吾庐而不售。”可恻然,计囊中装略当其数,尽与之。关中称其贤。

(选自《宋史·列传》)

注:①计:计吏,考察官吏的官员。②醵:聚集钱财;赆:临行时赠送礼物。③熟羊:地名。④囊中装:指珠玉之类的财物。

下列各句中,与“唯巫言是用”句式相同的一项是

( )

A.阙秦以利晋,唯君图之

B.一日自远归,家以窭告

C.言于大府诛之

D.夫晋,何厌之有

解析:例句“唯„„是„„”是宾语前置,只有D项符合条件,A项祈使句,B项省略句,C项状语后置。

答案:D

参考译文:侯可字无可,华州华阴人。小时候行为放荡不拘束,自以为很有气节。长大后改变了以前的做法,立志求学。跟随计吏进京,乡亲们聚集钱财赠送他并为之送行。等到回来的时候,他把剩余的钱全分给其他同举者,说:“这钱,是乡亲们用来资助入京应诏的人,不可以做④

别的事。”他将要走时听说乡人生病了,想到:“我回去了,那么他就可能死掉啊!”于是留下来不走,照顾病人。等病人病好了,就用自己的马来载病人,自己徒步回去了。

孙沔征伐侬徭时,侯可请求参与军事,被表奏有功得到了官职,做巴州化城的知县。巴地的风俗崇尚鬼神而废弃医术,只听从巫师的话来治病,娶媳妇必要索取钱财,穷人家的女儿至老也不能出嫁。侯可订立规约制度,判违反者有罪,基本改变了当地的不良风俗。后来调任华原主簿。有的富人在田籍上并没有登记他们的土地数量,却让别人抵押田契给他达上万亩,侯可责令他们交齐一年的租税。他一早就骑马直奔富人家,打开木匣拿出田契归还给它的主人。郡吏赵至诚贪婪狡猾凶狠残暴,把持下属的短处,身边的人对他无可奈何。侯可揭露他的罪行,将其带枷押入狱中,向州官言明判其死罪,听到的人无不感到快慰、佩服。

他做仪州判官时,正值西夏侵犯边关,使者派侯可巡视,侯可立即带领数十骑到了边境,突然与夏人相遇,他急忙把他的骑兵分为三四支,命令他们说:“竖起你们的旗帜,围绕着山慢慢地走。”夏人围着山转着走,偶尔看到侯可的零星部队,怀疑是侯可的诱敌之兵而不敢攻击。韩琦镇守长安,推荐侯可做泾阳县知县。又说服羌人首领献纳土地八千顷,并筑熟羊城来安抚他们。韩琦上报了他

的功绩。

侯可轻财乐义,把别人的急事当作自己的急事,把别人的忧愁当作自己的忧愁。他和田颜是好友。田颜病重,不远千里来求医,还没回归就死去了,死后眼睛也没闭上。有人说:“大概是在等侯君吧?”将要装殓的时候,侯可到了。他用手抚摸好友,田颜才闭上了眼睛。田颜没有子女,不能够下葬,侯可辛辛苦苦多方谋划,卖衣做活,最终埋葬了他。正值天冷,侯可穿着单衣过活,有人赠送给他白金,他就用白金为朋友未出嫁的妹妹置办嫁妆。一天他从远方归来,家人把家中的困境告诉了他,适逢友人郭行敲他家的门说:“我的父亲生病,医生索要百千钱,卖了我家的房子也凑不够这钱。”侯可显出怜悯同情的样子,计算自己的财物大致和那数目相当,全给了他。关中地区的人们都称赞他贤能。

导引·规律技巧

复习技巧

因为句式不单独考查,一般要与翻译结合起来。

1.注重积累,搞清规律。要深入体会前面“知识要点整合”中对各种句式及活用现象的总结归纳。

2.精选题例,触类旁通。方法是对每种特殊句式选一个典型、短小、易记的,熟读牢记。以此为例,触类旁通。例如,宾语前置的三种情况只需记“三岁贯女,莫我肯顾”

“尔何知”“惟你是问”三个句子,就可以去套类似的句式了。这种方法也可以用于理解记忆难以分辨的意动用法句子。例如只需记住“邑人奇之,稍稍宾客其父”一句,因为“奇”是形容词的意动用法,“宾客”是名词的意动用法。

3.适当地做各类练习。

备考小秘密

1.句式题考得较少,突出在省略句、固定句式等形式。

2.有些词类活用一般放在句式中考查。

3.要依据原文去推断语意。

4.省略句主要看前面句子的主语,来推断下一句的主语。

范文十:_阿房宫赋_的艺术特点

《 阿 房 宫 赋》 艺 的术 特 点

口,

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。、

《 阿房

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是 这极 写楼 阁 众 多美 奇妙 精 置布 错落有 致 造 形流动 回 旋 静把 的止 建 筑物 写 出了 感动你 看 高 翘 的亭 角 像 鸟 嘴 一样向 空 天啄 楼 台 去 亭阁 与 长廊 相接 曲 曲弯 弯 绕缭 旋 像 密 回集的蜂 像 湍房 急的 水 涡 来 静 态 本的 筑 在建诗 人 下 写 笔动 了 活写了 写 了 神读 着 些这 文字 阿房 宛 如宫一 磁块 铁吸 引读 者由远 到眺 近察 随 身后临 阿 房 深 宫 又 讶惊地 慨 感长 卧桥波 未 何云龙 ? 复道 行 空 不 雾何 ? 虹高 低冥迷 不 知 西 东这 称堪比喻 奇 用 长新龙 戏 水彩虹 横 空 喻 桥写 梁 道复的 奇 观给 人以 俊逸飘渺 美的 富 感 浪于 主漫义色彩 而 人 把诗 长廊 比 随成 飘风 舞的彩 带 将复 道 作比 后雨天 晴 的 长虹 有 色既 彩 的 美有更动 态 美 真的 妙不 是可言 歌 台暖响 春 光融 舞 殿冷 袖融风 凄雨凄一 日之 一 宫内 间 之而 候气 齐 这不几 句 从 结构 上 看是 写 景从 过 到渡写 人从 描 写 法 上手 看 建 筑 动的 态飞 越 与 宫 内 物人歌 舞 之 盛 互相 映 衬 相 益 得 从彰 而把 对秦 王奢 靡 生 活 揭 的露逐渐 推 高潮向三 以景乐 写 哀 这 是 本文 作 者 写 描人 物 活动的艺 表现 术 法手面 对 这 丽 富堂 皇的 宫 殿在 欣 之 余赏人 们不 禁要 问 这 宫中 的 物 以人及 人物 生活 状况 是 怎样又的呢 ? 星明 荧 开 妆 荧 也 镜 ;绿 云 扰扰梳 餐晓也 ; 渭 流 腻涨弃 脂水也 烟斜 雾 横;焚 椒 兰 也 者作 综 合 运用 夸 比 张喻 排比 的 修手 辞 法 写 得 当相精 彩 女宫 们 早 起清来 梳 妆 明镜 闪 闪 如 天 上 繁 的星这 实 际上 是 写宫 之 多女;

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丝 像 风微吹拂 天 上的 朵朵 乌 云 是这从侧 面 宫 女 之写美 ;脂 弃 水焚 兰 椒是 写 女宫 的奢 和娇 写 宫女 生 活 的豪奢 也 反 照 出秦 王室 的 豪 奢 接 下 来作 者 笔 锋陡 转 : 着怀 一种 怨 愤 感 的情写 一道股 一 容 尽态极

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漫立远 视 而 幸望 焉有 不 得 见 者 十 三六 年宫女 们 的生活 虽然 华 贵但 她 们的命 运 是 又等 何的 悲惨 当着载 始秦 皇的 宫 车飞 奔 而 来 他时们 道知 秦 始皇又 要 来 寻 作 欢乐 了 是 她 们于打 扮得 千 媚 娇百举 首 翘 望 秦 王的 亲 这 寥幸寥 几句 宫女把们 的 作动情 描绘 得 态 妙 维维 肖 个场这 面: 发读触者 联翩浮想 宫 女 花 们容月 貌态 娇艳 质, 。

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阿 宫 房赋》 处 处 给 人 一 美 种的享 受 发 激读 者的 审美 兴致 作者 写 阿 房宫 建筑的 善 于 明丽用 的 调笔 择 选富 有特征 的 象 勾形 勒出 一 幅幅鲜 明生 动 的画 面 让 人叹为 观止 东苏坡 称 赞 王维 诗 有 画 中千百 年来 传 为 美 谈 至 甚成 为品评 诗 歌的 学美原 则 一之 实杜 牧其的 许多 篇诗 如 (山 行 )《江 南 春 》都等 构 成了一 幅 幅生 动美 妙 画的 《卷 房 阿 宫赋 )堪 称也 诗 有中 画的赞誉 阅 读《阿房 赋宫 仿佛》是玩 味 欣 赏 一 艺 件术 珍

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但是( 阿 房宫赋) 毕 不 是歌竟 功颂 阿 谈 奉 承德 作之借 抒事情 明 理是 作 者 写 目作 的之 所在和 作者 的 多 咏史 诗 作许 一 样 是 旨也 借 历在史题 些这年 美轻 的 宫 丽 女 被 禁 幽深宫 花 开 花落 年材批 判 封建 治统者 荒 的淫无 告 诫道 人 们 车 复前 一年 青 易 逝春 红 颜憔 不 得悴 见者 三十 六 之 覆 后车之 鉴 诗 人 把 阿房 描宫 绘 得雄 伟 壮年 是 宫女 对 们 始 秦皇 的含 泪控 诉 作 者 通 过 丽 把 女 宫 的 活生渲 染 得 极其 贵华 写尽 宫 珍 中这 段文字 含 有 力蓄 地表 了达作者对 宫 的女 同 宝 之 多 情 贵 当 贱 以是就 让 人 得们 到强 烈 的 审 美 和 秦对始 皇的 愤 恨 开始 写 女宫 奢 华的 生 活她 受感留 下深 的刻 象 印 从 为 而 秦 爱纷奢 必然 们尽 情地 打 扮 朝歌夜 弦 似 快乎 乐 无忧 然后 灭 亡 提供 观 依客 据 牧杜 在 《上 知 己 文 章启) 中 :写 宫 女 的哀 怨 反 衬 出 秦 王 的荒 淫这 是 一种 以 说 宝历 ( 唐 敬宗 年 号 间)大 宫起 室 声 广色 故 乐写 哀 的写 哀法怨 怒 愤不着一 字 《作 阿宫 房 赋》这 就

明 确指 出文章 完 全 有 为 是 而 但一 意其 义显而 见 易 里 字 行 闪间 现 种含 蓄美 作作者 对 晚针唐社 潜伏着会的 种 种危 机 分光 芒 写的完 中 宫 的人 又物写 宫 中 珍 的奇珠 秦析 王朝 衰败 的历史 原 因 并 满怀忧 愤 发 出了 深 宝 秦 贵以 贱当挥 金如 土 档 玉 石 鼎 金块珠 切 的 感 叹达 了诗 表 写人 阿 (房 宫 赋)的主 旨 阿 , ’砾 几 个字 活 出 写秦 的 王 奢 骄 理 心 挥 和 无霍 度房 宫 的建筑虽 然 伟雄壮 观 但 正 是这 不知耗 了 的丑费 总态 之 盛 的 大歌 舞醉生 梦 死的 豪 生 多 奢少人 财力力 力 物的阿 房 宫 给 人 民带 了来 :深 活挥 金 土 的极 乐如掩 盖 着 的是 行 将灭 亡的极 重 的 灾难 诗 人不 无 愤 慨 地写 道使 负 之栋 柱 ;: 哀清人 王夫之 说 以 哀 景写 乐 以乐 写 哀景 多于 亩南之 农夫 架 梁 之 橡于 多 机 之上 宫 ; 女钉一 倍 其 哀增 乐 《 姜 (斋 话) 诗)文 中 乐以景 头写 磷 磷多 于 在庚之粟 粒 ;瓦 缝 参 差多 周 身于之 哀正 是 一倍增 其哀 这是作 者 又 一 匠 心 独具 之 帛缕 ;直 栏 横 多槛于 九土之城 郭 ; 管 弦 呕哑 多处 于 市 人 言 语 之作 把 者 宫 内宫外 的生 活 对 照 起 四借 抒事情 ; 诗人 之 赋来写 一 边 统是治 者穷奢极 的 欲乐园 边 一 是 民 《阿房宫 赋 》 称堪 人诗 之赋 文很中多 句 不 聊 生的 社会 实 现对 此天 下 敢 怒 不而敢 言 押 子 韵和 谐句 式 齐 对整 仗 稳 作 者工尤 其 善独夫 之心 益 日骄 固最 终 导致 了 戍 卒 叫 谷 于函 驭驾 诗语的 言 运用 陈 夸 铺 张 的 法 手创 造性 楚举 人 一炬 怜 可 土 焦 最的 终 局 结华豪 奢靡 地 描 绘了生 动 的 形 对 象 雄伟 妙精 的 殿宫众 多的 阿房 宫 在 也 羽项 的熊 熊火 大化为中 灰烬 为成美 艳的 宫女 倚 如 山 叠的珍宝 进 行 术描艺 写 秦和 王覆灭 朝 殉 葬的品 戍 卒叫 等四 短句个急 了 渲了染作 者在 意 象的选 择上 除注重 形其神 有促力 写 出起 义 军 摧 枯 拉朽 势如 破 的 声 竹很也讲 求 其色 彩 ; 词在句 组合上 不 但 注重其 势 给音人 一种 痛快淋漓 的美 感 韵 很也注 其意节奏 美全 辞文彩 清新 又 而华作 分 者析 六 国及秦灭 亡 的原 因 都 不 爱是 自己 美 韵 抑音 铿扬锵节 奏 明而快 富 于变化 明 如 人的 由民 骄奢于淫 逸 民不 命 才 起堪 族 星而荧 荧 开 妆 也镜 句几 可谓 色词 新清浓 一 之 丽对 作者 发 出此 深 切感 的叹 人 不 秦暇 哀自 气 呵成六 个 也 字成 组判的断 句 来如读 云行 流

而 后人哀 之 后 人 哀 之 而不鉴 之 亦使 后人而 复 水 光融 融 春雨凄 风凄 韵声和谐 排 比句 哀 后 也 人 就这明 提确出 以 秦鉴 为 实际 是 给上对 句 偶在 文中俯 拾即 是 人给们 层层 递进 之 感 晚唐 统治 提者 的出 忠告敲 响 警 钟 语 意 深 长 有整又齐 划一 之美 本 以文 四 句 为 主 字间 三 或发 人 深思回 往 复 旋 明白晓 畅 全 文是 落 脚 的 字 句五字 句 至甚九 字 长句短 相 句 杂式 整齐 点. 而 富变 化 有 奏节 扬顿挫 抑读 来 朗 朗 口 上 吟

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