艾玛沃森联合国演讲

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范文一:艾玛·沃特森在联合国演讲

Today we are launching a campaign called “HeForShe。”

I am reaching out to you because I need your help. We want to end gender inequality—and to do that we need everyone to be involved。

This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN: wewant to try and galvanize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates forgender equality. And we don’t just want to talk about it, but make sure it istangible。

I was appointed six months ago and the more I have spoken about feminism the more I have realized that fighting for women’s rightshas too often become

synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I knowfor certain, it is that this has to stop。

For the record, feminism by definition is: “The belief that men and women

should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theoryof the political, economic and social equality of the sexes。”

I started questioning gender-based assumptions when ateight I was confused at being called “bossy,” because I wanted to direct the plays we would put on for our parents—but the boys were not。

When at 14 I started being sexualized by certainelements of the press。

When at 15 my girlfriends started dropping out oftheir sports teams because they didn’t want to appear “muscly。”

When at 18 my male friends were unable to expresstheir feelings。

I decided I was a feminist and this seemed uncomplicated to me. But my recent research has shown me that feminism has become an unpopular word。

Apparently I am among the ranks of women who seexpressions are seen as too strong, too aggressive, isolating, anti-men and,unattractive。

Why is the word such an uncomfortable one?

I am from Britain and think it is right that as awoman I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decision-making of my country. I think it is right that socially I am afforded the same respect as men. But sadly I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights。

No country in the world can yet say they have achieved gender equality。

These rights I consider to be human rights but I amone of the lucky ones. My life is a sheer privilege because my parents didn’t love me less because I was born a

daughter. My school did not limit me because I was a girl. My mentors didn’t assume I would go less far because I might givebirth to a child one day. These influencers

were the gender equality ambassadors that made who I am today. They may not know it, but they are the in advertent feminists who are. And we need more of those. And if you still hatethe word—it is not the word that is important but the idea and the

ambition behind it. Because not all women have been afforded the same rights that I have. In fact, statistically, very few have been。

In 1997, Hilary Clinton made a famous speech in Beijing about women’s rights. Sadly many of the things she wanted to change are still a reality today。

But what stood out for me the most was that only 30 per cent of her audience were male. How can we affect change in the world when only half of it is invited or feel welcome to participate in the conversation?

Men—I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue too。

Because to date, I’ve seen my father’s role as a parent being valued less by society despite my needing his presence as a childas much as my mother’s。

I’ve seen young men suffering from mental illness unable to ask for help for fear it would make them look less “macho”—in fact inthe UK suicide is the biggest killer of men between 20-49; eclipsing roadaccidents, cancer and coronary heart disease. I’ve seen men made fragile and insecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success. Men don’t havethe benefits of equality either。

We don’t often talk about men being imprisoned bygender stereotypes but I can see that that they are and that when they are free, things will change for women as a natural consequence。

If men don’t have to be aggressive in order to beaccepted women won’t feel compelled to be submissive. If men don’t have tocontrol, women won’t have to be controlled。

Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive.Both men and women

should feel free to be strong… It is time that we all perceive gender on a spectrum not as two opposing sets of ideals。

If we stop defining each other by what we are not and start defining ourselves by who we are—we can all be freer and this is what HeForShe is about. It’s about freedom。

I want men to take up this mantle. So their daughters,sisters and mothers can be free from prejudice but also so that their sons have permission to be vulnerable and human too—reclaim those parts of themselves they abandoned and in doing so be a more true and complete version ofthemselves。

You might be thinking who is this Harry Potter girl?And what is she doing up on stage at the UN. It’s a good question and trust me.I have been asking myself the same thing. I don’t know if I am qualified to behere. All I know is that I care about this problem. And I want to make itbetter。

And having seen what I’ve seen—and given the chance—Ifeel it is my duty to say something. English statesman Edmund Burke said: “Allthat is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for enough good men and women to do nothing。”

In my nervousness for this speech and in my moments of doubt I’ve told myself firmly—if not me, who, if not now, when. If you have similar doubts when opportunities are presented to you I hope those words might be helpful。

Because the reality is that if we do nothing it will take 75 years, or for me to be nearly a hundred before women can expect to be paid the same as men for the same work. 15.5 million girls will be married inthe next 16 years as children. And at current rates it won’t be until 2086 before all rural African girls will be able to receive a secondary education。

If you believe in equality, you might be one of those in advertent feminists I spoke of earlier。

And for this I applaud you。

We are struggling for a uniting word but the good news is we have a uniting movement. It is called HeForShe. I am inviting you to stepforward, to be seen to speak up, To be the he for she. And to ask yourself: if not me, who?if not now when? Thank you。

原文地址:http://fanwen.wenku1.com/article/19162087.html
Today we are launching a campaign called “HeForShe。”

I am reaching out to you because I need your help. We want to end gender inequality—and to do that we need everyone to be involved。

This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN: wewant to try and galvanize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates forgender equality. And we don’t just want to talk about it, but make sure it istangible。

I was appointed six months ago and the more I have spoken about feminism the more I have realized that fighting for women’s rightshas too often become

synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I knowfor certain, it is that this has to stop。

For the record, feminism by definition is: “The belief that men and women

should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theoryof the political, economic and social equality of the sexes。”

I started questioning gender-based assumptions when ateight I was confused at being called “bossy,” because I wanted to direct the plays we would put on for our parents—but the boys were not。

When at 14 I started being sexualized by certainelements of the press。

When at 15 my girlfriends started dropping out oftheir sports teams because they didn’t want to appear “muscly。”

When at 18 my male friends were unable to expresstheir feelings。

I decided I was a feminist and this seemed uncomplicated to me. But my recent research has shown me that feminism has become an unpopular word。

Apparently I am among the ranks of women who seexpressions are seen as too strong, too aggressive, isolating, anti-men and,unattractive。

Why is the word such an uncomfortable one?

I am from Britain and think it is right that as awoman I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decision-making of my country. I think it is right that socially I am afforded the same respect as men. But sadly I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights。

No country in the world can yet say they have achieved gender equality。

These rights I consider to be human rights but I amone of the lucky ones. My life is a sheer privilege because my parents didn’t love me less because I was born a

daughter. My school did not limit me because I was a girl. My mentors didn’t assume I would go less far because I might givebirth to a child one day. These influencers

were the gender equality ambassadors that made who I am today. They may not know it, but they are the in advertent feminists who are. And we need more of those. And if you still hatethe word—it is not the word that is important but the idea and the

ambition behind it. Because not all women have been afforded the same rights that I have. In fact, statistically, very few have been。

In 1997, Hilary Clinton made a famous speech in Beijing about women’s rights. Sadly many of the things she wanted to change are still a reality today。

But what stood out for me the most was that only 30 per cent of her audience were male. How can we affect change in the world when only half of it is invited or feel welcome to participate in the conversation?

Men—I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue too。

Because to date, I’ve seen my father’s role as a parent being valued less by society despite my needing his presence as a childas much as my mother’s。

I’ve seen young men suffering from mental illness unable to ask for help for fear it would make them look less “macho”—in fact inthe UK suicide is the biggest killer of men between 20-49; eclipsing roadaccidents, cancer and coronary heart disease. I’ve seen men made fragile and insecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success. Men don’t havethe benefits of equality either。

We don’t often talk about men being imprisoned bygender stereotypes but I can see that that they are and that when they are free, things will change for women as a natural consequence。

If men don’t have to be aggressive in order to beaccepted women won’t feel compelled to be submissive. If men don’t have tocontrol, women won’t have to be controlled。

Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive.Both men and women

should feel free to be strong… It is time that we all perceive gender on a spectrum not as two opposing sets of ideals。

If we stop defining each other by what we are not and start defining ourselves by who we are—we can all be freer and this is what HeForShe is about. It’s about freedom。

I want men to take up this mantle. So their daughters,sisters and mothers can be free from prejudice but also so that their sons have permission to be vulnerable and human too—reclaim those parts of themselves they abandoned and in doing so be a more true and complete version ofthemselves。

You might be thinking who is this Harry Potter girl?And what is she doing up on stage at the UN. It’s a good question and trust me.I have been asking myself the same thing. I don’t know if I am qualified to behere. All I know is that I care about this problem. And I want to make itbetter。

And having seen what I’ve seen—and given the chance—Ifeel it is my duty to say something. English statesman Edmund Burke said: “Allthat is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for enough good men and women to do nothing。”

In my nervousness for this speech and in my moments of doubt I’ve told myself firmly—if not me, who, if not now, when. If you have similar doubts when opportunities are presented to you I hope those words might be helpful。

Because the reality is that if we do nothing it will take 75 years, or for me to be nearly a hundred before women can expect to be paid the same as men for the same work. 15.5 million girls will be married inthe next 16 years as children. And at current rates it won’t be until 2086 before all rural African girls will be able to receive a secondary education。

If you believe in equality, you might be one of those in advertent feminists I spoke of earlier。

And for this I applaud you。

We are struggling for a uniting word but the good news is we have a uniting movement. It is called HeForShe. I am inviting you to stepforward, to be seen to speak up, To be the he for she. And to ask yourself: if not me, who?if not now when? Thank you。

范文二:艾玛沃特森联合国演讲稿英文_完整版

Speech by UN Women Goodwill Ambassador Emma Watson at a special event for the HeForShe campaign, United Nations Headquarters, New York, 20 September 2014 Your excellences, UN Secretary-General, president of the General Assembly, executive Director of UN Women and distinguished guests it is an honour for me tobe here today.

Today we are launching a campaign called “HeForShe.”

I am reaching out to you because I need your help. We want to end gender inequality—and to do that we need everyone involved.

This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN: we want to try and galvanize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates for change. And we don’t just want to talk about it, we want to try and make sure that it is tangible.

I was appointed as goodwill ambassador for UN women six months ago and the more I have spoken about feminism the more I have realized that fighting for women’s rights has too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I know for certain, it is that this has to stop.

For the record, feminism by definition is: “The belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of the political, economic and social equality of the sexes.”

I started questioning gender-based assumptions a long time ago. When I was eight I was confused at being called “bossy,” because I wanted to direct the plays we would put on for our parents—but the boys were not.

When at 14 I started being sexualized by certain elements of the media.

When at 15 my girlfriends started dropping out of their sports teams because they didn’t want to appear “muscly.”

When at 18 my male friends were unable to express their feelings.

I decided that I was a feminist and this seemed uncomplicated to me. But my recent research has shown me that feminism has become an unpopular word.

Women are choosing not to identify as feminists. Apparently I am among the ranks of women whose expressions are seen as too strong, too aggressive, isolating, and anti-men, unattractive, even.

Why has the word become such an uncomfortable one?

I am from Britain and I think it is right that I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decisions that will affect my life.

I think it is right that socially I am afforded the same respect as men. But sadly I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights.

No country in the world can yet say that they have achieved gender equality.

These rights I consider to be human rights but I am one of the lucky ones. My life is a sheer privilege because my parents didn’t love me less because I was born a daughter. My school did not limit me because I was a girl. My mentors didn’t assume I would go less far because I might give birth to a child one day. These influencers were the gender equality ambassadors that made who I am today. They may not know it, but they are the inadvertent feminists who are changing the world today. We need more of those. And if you still hate the word—it is not the word that is important, it’s the idea and the ambition behind it, because not all women have received the same rights that I have. In fact, statistically, very few have been.

In 1997, Hilary Clinton made a famous speech in Beijing about women’s rights. Sadly many of the things she wanted to change are still true today.

But what stood out for me the most was that less than 30 percent of her audiences were male. How can we affect change in the world when only half of it is invited or feel welcome to participate in the conversation?

Men—I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue too.

Because to date, I’ve seen my father’s role as a parent being valued less by society despite my needing his presence as a child as much as my mother’s.

I’ve seen young men suffering from mental illness unable to ask for help for fear it would make them less “of a man” or less of “macho”—in fact in the UK suicide is the biggest killer of men between 20-49; eclipsing road accidents, cancer and coronary heart disease. I’ve seen men made fragile and insecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success. Men don’t have the benefits of equality either.

We don’t often talk about men being imprisoned by gender stereotypes but I can see that that they are and that when they are free, things will change for women as a natural consequence.

If men don’t have to be aggressive in order to be accepted, women won’t feel compelled to be submissive. If men don’t have to control, women won’t have to be controlled.

Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive. Both men and women should feel free to be strong… It is time that we all perceive gender on a spectrum instead of two sets of opposing ideals.

If we stop defining each other by what we are not and start defining ourselves by who we are—we can all be freer and this is what HeForShe is about. It’s about freedom.

I want men to take up this mantle. So their daughters, sisters and mothers can be free

from prejudice but also so that their sons have permission to be vulnerable and human too—reclaim those parts of themselves they abandoned and in doing so be a more true and complete version of themselves.

You might be thinking who is this Harry Potter girl? And what is she doing speaking at the UN. And it’s a really good question. I have been asking myself the same thing.

All I know is that I care about this problem. And I want to make it better.

And having seen what I’ve seen—and given the chance—I feel it is my responsibility to say something. Statesman Edmund Burke said: “All that is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for good men and women to do nothing.”

In my nervousness for this speech and in my moments of doubt I’ve told myself firmly—if not me, who, if not now, when. If you have similar doubts when opportunities are presented to you I hope that those words might be helpful.

Because the reality is that if we do nothing it will take 75 years, or for me to be nearly a hundred before women can expect to be paid the same as men for the same work. 15.5 million girls will be married in the next 16 years as children. And at current rates it won’t be until 2086 before all rural African girls can have a secondary education.

If you believe in equality, you might be one of those inadvertent feminists that I spoke of earlier.

And for this I applaud you.

We are struggling for a uniting world but the good news is we have a uniting movement. It is called HeForShe. I am inviting you to step forward, to be seen and to ask yourself if not me, who, if not now, when.

Thank you very very much.

范文三:艾玛沃特森联合国演讲稿(中英文对照)

艾玛沃特森 联合国演讲稿( 中英文 )

Your excellence UN Secretary-General,President of the General Assembly,Executive Director of UN Women,And distinguished guests

尊敬的秘书长阁下,大会主席阁下,妇女署执行主任阁下,以及尊贵的来宾们

Today we are launching a campaign called HeForShe

今天我们将启动一项HeForShe的倡议活动

I am reaching out to you because we need your help,we want to end gender inequality

此番演讲是为了获得您的支持,能让我们一道行动,终结性别不平等

And to do this,we need everyone involved

实现这个目标需要每个人的参与

This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN

这次我们开创了联合国发起的同类活动的先河

We want to try to galvanize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates for change,and we don’t just want to talk about it,We want to try and make sure that it’s tangible

我们希望能接力号召尽可能多的男人和男孩们,加入到寻求改变的倡导者行列,我们也不想仅仅开出空头支票,我们希望全力以赴,确保达成其实目标

I was appointed as Goodwill Ambassador for UN Women six months ago,and the more I’ve spoken about feminism,the more I have realized that fighting for women ’s right has too often become synonymous with men-hating

六个月前,我被任命为联合国妇女署的亲善大使,但我越是提及女权主义,越是意识到争取女性权益往往跟仇视男性混为一谈

If there is one thing I know for certain it is that this has to stop 我十分确信的是,必须停止这种认识

For the record feminism by definition is the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities, 在此声明,从定义上来说女权主义是一种信念,认为男女应该具有同等权利和机遇

It is the theory of the political economic and social equality of the sexes

也是政治经济以及社会的性别平等理论

I started questioning gender-based assumptions a long time ago

很久之前我就开始质疑种种基于性别的预设

When I was 8,I was confused about being called ”bossy”, because I wanted to direct the plays,that we would put on for our parents,but the boys were not

当我8岁时,因为我想编排给家长们的演出就被斥为“专横”,而男孩不会受到同样的指责

When at 14,I started to be sexualised by certain elements of the media,

当我14岁时,某些媒体开始渲染,我性感化的公众形象

When at 15 my girlfriends started dropping out of their beloved sports teams,because they didn’t want to appear muscle-y

当我15岁时,我的女朋友们纷纷退出她们心爱的运动队,因为她们不像看起来肌肉发达

When at 18 my male friends were unable to express their feelings

当我18岁时,我的男性朋友们无法自如的表达他们的情感

I decided that I was a feminist,and this seems uncomplicated to me

那时我就决定成为一位女权主义者,对我来说这是件简单明了的事

But my recent research has shown me that feminism has become an unpopular word,women are choosing not to identify as feminists.

但我近期的调查表明,女权主义已经变为不受欢迎的词汇,女人们不愿意被认为是女权主义者

Apparently I am among the ranks of women whose expressions are seen as too strong “too aggressive”,isolating and anti-men,unattractive,even

很显然我被列为那类女性,措辞强硬,过于激进,自我封闭一味反对男性,甚至缺乏魅力

Why has the word become such an uncomfortable one 为何这个词已经让人如此不适

I am form Britain,and I think it is wright that I am paid the same as my male counterparts,I think it is wright that I should be able to make decisions about my own body,I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and the decisions that affect my life,I think it is right that socially,I am afforded the same respect as men

我来自英国,我认为我应该获得与我男性同行同等的资金待遇,我认为我应该拥有自主支配自己身体的权利,我认为女性应该代表我参与到能影响我生活的政策制定中,我认为在社会上我也能赢得与男性同样的尊重

But sadly I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights.No country in the world can yet say that they have achieved gender equality,these rights I consider to be human rights 遗憾的是,我可以说世界上任何一个国家的女性群体都未能完全拥有这些权利,至今无一国家能断言,他们已经实现了性别平等,这些权利我认为就是人权

But I am one of the lucky ones,my life is a sheer privilege, because my parents didn’t love me less because I was born a daughter,My school did not limit me because I was a girl,my mentor didn’t assume that I would go less far because I might give birth to a child one day

但我无疑是幸运的,我一直享受着特殊待遇,因为我的父母并没有因为我身为女儿就减少对我的关爱,我就读的学校也没有因为我是女孩就加以限制,我的导师也没有因为我日后将为人母而对我不予厚望

These influencers were the gender equality ambassadors that made me who I am today,they may not know it,but they are the inadvertent feminists,we need more of those and if you still hate the word,it is not the word that is important,it’s the idea and the ambition behind it,because not all women have received the same rights that I have.In fact statistically very few have been

这些影响我的人们正如推广性别平等的大使,是他们成就了今天的我,也许他们并没有察觉,但他们就是那些“无心插柳”的女权主义者们。我们需要更多的这类人,如果你任然厌恶这个词,那么其实词本身不重要,重要的是词背后传递的理念和愿景,因为并不是所有女性都拥有和我一样的权利。事实上从数据上看只有很少一部分女性拥有这样的权利。

In 1997 Hillary Clinton made a famous speech in Beijing about women ’s rights,Sadly many of the things that she wanted to change,are still true today.But what stood out for me the most was that less than 30 percent of the audience were male

!997年,希拉里克林顿在北京就女性权利发表了一次著名演讲,遗憾的是很多当时她力求改变的情况,在今天任然存在,但我更留意到男性观众少于30%的事实

How can we affect change in the world when only half of it is invited or feel welcome to participant in the conversation. 当世界上只有一半人口收到邀请鼓励加入到谈话中,我们又怎能奢望改变这个世界呢

Men I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal information,Gender equality is your issue too

男同胞们我想借此机会向你们发出正式邀请,性别平等也是你们的议题

Because to date I’ve seen my father’s role as a parent being valued less by society,despite my needing his presence as a child as much as my mother’s

因为是指今日,我见证到最为家长,父亲的角色被社会所轻视,尽管孩童时代我需要父母给予同样的关照

I’ve seen young men suffering from mental illness unable to ask for help,for fear it would make them less of man ,or less of a man.

我看到年轻男性遭受心理疾病的折磨,而无法向外寻求帮助,因为害怕这样看起来不男人,被人瞧不起

In fact in the U.K.suicide is the biggest killer of man between 20 to 49 eclipsing road accidents,cancer and coronary heart disease

事实上在英国,自杀已经成为20到49岁男性的头号杀手,超越交通事故,癌症和冠心病

I have seen men made fragile and insecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success,men don’t have the benefits of equality either

我目睹了男人们因为成为成功男人这样偏狭的观念而变得脆弱和缺乏安全感,男人一样没能享受到平等带来的福利

We don’t often talk about men being imprisoned by gender stereotypes,but I can see that they are

我们不常谈到男性同样,遭受性别刻板印象的禁锢,但我能察觉到这点

When they are free things will change for women as a natural consequence,If men don’t have to be aggressive in order to be accepted,women won’t be compelled to be submissive,if men don;t have to control,women won’t have to be controlled

当他们不受束缚时,女性的状况就会自然而改变,如果男人不需要通过表现攻击性来或得认同,那么女人就不用逼迫自己显得顺从,如果男人没必要实时掌控,那么女人也不

需要听命于掌控

Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive,both men and women should feel free to be strong

不管是男是女都可以放任自己的铭感细腻,不管是男是女都可以培养自己的坚强无畏

It is time that we all perceive gender on a spectrum instead of two sets of opposing ideals

如今我们应该用更大的视野看待性别,而不是两套对立的规范

If we should stop defining each other by what we are not and start defining ourselves by who we are,we can all be freer and this is what HeForShe is about,It’s about freedom

如果我们能不再通过消减异性的特征来定义自己,而开始正视自己所拥有的一切特质,我们都将变得更自由,这就是HeForShe的意义所在,它与自由息息相关

I want men to take up this mantle so their daughters sisters and mothers can be free from prejudice,but also so their sons have permission to be vulnerable and human too

我希望男同胞们能传承这样的信念,那么他们的女儿们,姐妹们和母亲们都会免于遭受歧视,同时他们的儿子们也有权利释放自己的脆弱和更人性化的一面

We claim those parts of themselves they abandoned and in doing so be a more true and complete version of themselves 我们珍视他们所抛弃掉的那一部分人性我们这样做是为了他们能够保留更为真实和完整的人性

You might be thinking who is this Harry Potter girl and what is she doing speaking at the U.N. And it’s really good question,I’ve been asking myself the same thing,All I know is that I care about this problem and I want to make it better,And having seen what I’ve seen,and given the chance,I fell it is my responsibility to say something

你也许会问,这个哈利波特里 的女孩是干嘛的,她怎么会来联合国发表演说,这真是个好问题,我也曾反复问自己同样的问题,我只知道自己确实关心这个问题,也想尽绵薄之力改善现状,既然亲眼见到了这样的现状也获得这样的机会,我自觉有责任说些什么

Statesmen Edmund Burke said all that is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for good men and women to do nothing 政治家埃德蒙.伯克曾说过邪恶压制正义只需要善良的男男女女们坐视不理,无动于衷

In my nervousness for this speech and in my moment of doubt,I’ve told myself firmly, if not me,who? If not

now,when?

在我为演讲忐忑的时候,在我怀疑自己的时候,我坚定的告诉自己,我不挺身,更待何人,此时无为,更待何时

If you have similar doubts when opportunities are presented to you,I hope that those words will be helpful,because the reality is that if we do nothing it will take 75 years or for me or to be nearly 100 before woman can expect to be paid the same as men for the same work

如果当你面前有这样的机会,而你也有次困惑的话,我希望这句话能对你有所帮助。因为事实上,如果我们无所作为,那要等上75年,对我来说甚至是将近100年,才能期待男性和女性实现同工同酬

15.5 million girls will be married in the next 16 years as children and at the current rates,it won’t be until 2086 before all rural African girls can have a secondary education

接下来的十六年里将有1550万女孩,尚未成年就被迫嫁做人妇,而按照现在的进度,要直到2086年才能让所有的非洲女童都接受中等教育

If you believe in equality,you might be one of those inadvertent feminists that I spoke of earlier,and for this I applaud you

如果你怀有平等的信念,那你就可能是我之前提过的那些“无心插柳”的女权主义者。如果是这样,我会为你鼓掌

We are struggling for a uniting word,but the good news is that we have a uniting movement.it is called HeForShe.I am inviting you to step forward to be seen and to ask yourself “If not me,who?If not now,when?”

我们任在为天下大同而奋战,但好消息是我们现在就有一个打一统的行动,这就是HeForShe。我诚邀你们,挺身而出扪心自问,我不挺身,更待何人,此时无为,更待何时。

范文四:HeForShe艾玛沃森联合国女权主义演讲

He For She Emma Watson

Today we are launching a campaign called “HeForShe。”I am reaching out to you because I need your help. Wewant to end gender inequality—and to do this we need everyone to be involved。

今天,我们启动了一项名为“他为她”的运动。我向你伸出手,因为我需要你的帮助。我们希望终结性别不平等——为此,我们需要所有人都参与其中。 This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN: wewant to try and galvanize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates forgender equality. And we don’t just want to talk about it,we want to try and make sure that it’s tangible。

这是联合国同类运动中的第一项:我们希望努力并激励尽可能多的男人和男孩倡导性别平等。而且希望这(性别平等)不只是空谈,而是确确实实的看得见摸得着。

I was appointed as a Goodwill ambassador for UN women six months ago and the more I havespoken about feminism the more I have realized that fighting for women’s rightshas has too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I knowfor certain, it is that this has to stop。

六个月前,我被任命为联合国妇女亲善大使。而随着我谈论女权主义越多,我越发现,“争取女性权益”太容易被当作是“憎恨男人”的同义词。如果说有一件事是我确实知道的,那就是,这样的误解必须停止。

For the record, feminism by definition is: “The beliefthat men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theoryof the political, economic and social equality of the sexes。”

必须郑重声明,女权主义的定义是:“相信男性和女性应该拥有平等权利和机会。它是性别间政治、经济和社会平等的理论。”

I started questioning gender-based assumptions a long time ago.When I was eight I was confused at being called “bossy,” because I wanted to direct theplays we would put on for our parents—but the boys were not。When at 14 ,I started to be sexualized by certainelements of the media. When at 15, my girlfriends started dropping out oftheir sports teams because they didn’t want to appear “muscly.”When at 18, my male friends were unable to expresstheir feelings.

8岁时,我开始质疑某些基于性别的假设。我不明白,为什么我想在为家长[微博]上演的戏剧里担任导演,就会被说成“专横”,而男孩们则不会; 14岁时,我开始被媒体报道的某些元素性别化;

15岁时,我的女性朋友们开始退出各自的运动队,因为她们不希望显得“肌肉发达”;18岁时,我的男性朋友们无法表达他们的感受。

I decided I was a feminist and this seemeduncomplicated to me. But my recent research has shown me that feminism hasbecome an unpopular word。 我认为自己是一名女权主义者,这(身份认定)对我来说并不难。但我最近的调查发现,女权主义已经成为一个不受欢迎的词。

Women,are choosing not to identify as feminist.

女人们,正在避免让自己被定义为女权主义者。

Apparently I am among the ranks of women whoseexpressions are seen as too strong, too aggressive, isolating, anti-men and,unattractive even. 显然,我成了那些言辞看起来过于强势、过于激进、孤立、反男性、不吸引人的女性行列中的一员。

Why has the word become such an uncomfortable one?为什么这个词如此令人不安?

I am from Britain and I think it is right that I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that Ishould be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right thatwomen be involved on my behalf in the policies and decisions making that affect my life. I think it is right that socially I am afforded the same respect asmen. But sadly I can say that there is no one country in the world where allwomen can expect to receive these rights。

我来自英国,我认为身为女性,我应该和男性同行获得一样的报酬。我认为我应该自己为自己的身体做决定。我认为应该有女性代表我参与政治,以及我的国家的决策制定。我认为在社会上,我应该和男性获得相同的尊重。但遗憾的是,世界上没有一个国家能使所有的女性都能获得上述权利。

No country in the world can yet say that they have achievedgender equality。

世界上没有一个国家能说,他们已经实现了性别平等。

These rights I consider to be human rights but I amone of the lucky ones. My life is a sheer privilege because my parents didn’tlove me less because I was born a daughter. My school did not limit me becauseI was a girl. My mentors didn’t assume I would go less far because I might givebirth to a child one day. These influencers were the gender equalityambassadors that made me who I am today. They may not know it, but they are

theinadvertent feminists who are changing the world today. We need more of those. And if you still hatethe word—it is not the word that is important but the idea and the ambitionbehind it. Because not all women have been received the same rights that Ihave. In fact, statistically, very few have been。

这些权利,我认为是每个人都该享有,然而(事实是)我只是众多幸运儿中的一个。我的生活是完完全全的特例,因为我的父母没有因为我生为女儿而减少对我的爱,我的学校没有因为我是女孩而限制我,我的导师没有因为我将来可能要生孩子而认为我会走不远。这些影响了我的人,都是性别平等大使,是他们造就了今天的我。他们也许并不知道,但他们是无心的女权主义者。而我们现在,则需要更多这样的人。所以,如果你仍然憎恨这个词——重要的不是这个词,而是它背后的想法和抱负。因为并不是所有女性都能够享有我所拥有的权利。事实上,从统计数据看,真的非常少。

In 1997, Hilary Clinton made a famous speech inBeijing about women’s rights. Sadly,many of the things she wanted to change arestill true today。1997年,希拉里克林顿在北京做了一个关于女性权益的着名演讲。很遗憾,很多她希望改变的事实今天仍存在。

But what stood out for me the most was that only 30per cent of her audience were male. How can we affect change in the world whenonly half of it is invited or feel welcome to participate in the conversation?

我注意到,听众里只有30%是男性。当只有世界上的一半的人参与并融入这场对话时,我们怎么可能做出影响世界的改变?

Men—I would like to take this opportunity to extendyour formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue too。

男人们——我希望利用这个机会正式的邀请你们加入。性别平等也与你们有关。 Because to date, I’ve seen my father’s role as aparent being valued less by society despite my needing his presence as a childas much as my mother’s。

因为到目前为止,我看到,我父亲作为家长所发挥的作用被社会所低估,虽然作为孩子,我所需要的他的陪伴和我需要母亲的一样多。

I’ve seen young men suffering from mental illnessunable to ask for help for fear it would make him less of a man.In fact inthe UK suicide is the biggest killer of men between 20-49; eclipsing roadaccidents, cancer and coronary heart disease.

I’ve seen men made fragile andinsecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success. Men don’t havethe benefits of equality either。 我看到,年轻男性因为害怕自己显得不够“男子汉大丈夫”,从而在承受心理困扰时窘于寻求帮助——事实上,在英国,自杀已经是20-49岁男性的第一死亡原因,比交通事故、癌症和冠心病造成的死亡都多。我看到,男人因为对男性成功的扭曲理解而感到脆弱和不安全。性别不平等对男性也没有好处。

We don’t often talk about men being imprisoned bygender stereotypes but I can see that that they are and that when they arefree, things will change for women as a natural consequence.

我们并不常谈及男人因为性别刻板印象而入狱,不过我可以看到,事情真是这样。并且当他们自由时,女性的境遇也会自然发生变化。

If men don’t have to be aggressive in order to beaccepted women won’t feel compelled to be submissive. If men don’t have tocontrol, women won’t have to be controlled.

如果男性不再为了被认可而变得强势好斗,女性也不会再感到被迫逆来顺受。如果男性不再被迫掌控一切,女性也不会再被迫受掌控。

Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive.Both men and women should feel free to be strong.It is time that we allperceive gender on a spectrum instead two opposing sets of ideals。

男人和女人都可以敏感;男人和女人都可以强壮„„是时候把性别理解为光谱,而不是南辕北辙的两派。

If we stop defining each other by what we are not andstart defining ourselves by what we are—we can all be freer and this is whatHeForShe is about. It’s about freedom。如果我们不再把对方定义为自己的对立面,而是把对方定义为我们的一员——我们都会更加自由。这就是“他为她”运动所倡导的。这就是自由。

I want men to take up this mantle. So their daughters,sisters and mothers can be free from prejudice but also so that their sons havepermission to be vulnerable and human too—reclaim those parts of themselvesthey abandoned and in doing so be a more true and complete version ofthemselves。

我希望男性负起这个责任。这样他们的女儿、姐妹和母亲都能够拥有免于偏见的自由,同时,他们的儿子也能被允许脆弱和感性——拥有这些他们曾经摈弃的特质,他们才是更真实和完整的自己。

You might be thinking who is this Harry Potter girl?What is she doing this evening at the UN.Andit’s a good question and I have been asking myself the same thing. All I know is that I care about this problem. And I want to make itbetter。

你可能会想,这个从《哈利波特》里走出的姑娘是谁?她在联合国的讲台上做什么?这是一个好问题。相信我,我也问过自己相同的问题。我不知道我是否够格站在这里。我所知道的是我关心这个问题。我希望它能变好。

And having seen what I’ve seen—and given the chance—Ifeel it is my responsibility to say something.Statesman Edmund Burke said: “Allthat is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for enough good men andwomen to do nothing。”

同时,因为我目睹过那些事情——并且我又有机会——我感到自己有责任说些什么。英国政治家埃德蒙德?伯克曾说:“恶势力要想取胜很容易,只要足够多的、善良的男人和女人们什么都不做就可以了。”

In my nervousness for this speech and in my moments ofdoubt I’ve told myself firmly—if not me, who, if not now, when. If you havesimilar doubts when opportunities are presented to you, I hope those words mightbe helpful。

当我为这次演讲感到紧张和疑虑时,我坚定的告诉自己——如果不是我,那又该是谁;如果不是现在,那又该是何时?如果当你面对机会时也有类似的疑虑,希望这些话能对你有所帮助。

Because the reality is that if we do nothing it willtake 75 years, or for me to be nearly a hundred before women can expect to bepaid the same as men for the same work. 15.5 million girls will be married inthe next 16 years as children. And at current rates it won’t be until 2086before all rural African girls can have a secondary education。

因为现实是,如果我们什么也不做,那么女性实现与男性同工同酬需要花上75年,而要我说,这恐怕得花上几乎一百年。1550万女孩会在未来16年被迫童婚。同时,按现在的发展速度,在2086年以前,非洲农村都无法实现所有女孩都能接受中等教育。

If you believe in equality,you might be one of those inadvertent feminists I spike of earlier.And for this I applaud you.We are struggling for a uniting word,but the good news is we have a uniting movement.It is called“HE FOR SHE”.I am inviting you to step forward to be seen and to ask yourself,if not me,who?If not now who?

Thank you!

范文五:艾玛沃特森在联合国女权主义演讲

Actress Emma Watson's plea for equality winsmen's support

Today we are launching a campaign called “He For She.”

I am reaching out to you because I need your help. We want to end gender inequality—and to do that we need everyone to be involved.

This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN: we want to try and galvanize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates(提倡者) for gender equality.

And we don’t want to talk about it, but make sure it is tangible.(有形的)

I was appointed six months ago and the more I have spoken about feminism

the more I have realized that fighting for women’s rights has too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I know for certain, it is that this has to stop.

For the record, feminism by definition is:“The belief that men and women should have equal rightsand(人权) opportunities. It is the theory of the political, economic and social equality of the sexes.”

I started questioning gender-based assumptions when at eight I was confused at being called“bossy,” because I wanted to direct the plays we would put on for our parents—but the boys were not.

When at 14 I started being sexualized by certain elements of the press.

When at 15 my girlfriends started dropping out of their sports teams because they didn’t want to appear “muscly.”

《哈利波特》中赫敏的扮演者、联合国妇女亲善

大使艾玛•沃森在2014年9月20日纽约联合国总部为“他为她”运动举行的特别活动上的演讲。

今天,我们启动了一项名为“他为她”的运动。 我向你伸出手,因为我需要你的帮助。我们希望终结性别不平等——为此,我们需要所有人都参与其中。

这是联合国同类运动中的第一项:我们希望努力并激励尽可能多的男人和男孩倡导性别平等。而且希望这(性别平等)不只是空谈,而是确确实实的看得见摸得着。

六个月前,我被任命为联合国妇女亲善大使。而随着我谈论女权主义越多,我越发现,“争取女性权益”太容易被当作是“憎恨男人”的同义词。如果说有一件事是我确实知道的,那就是,这样的误解必须停止。

必须郑重声明,女权主义的定义是:“相信男性和女性应该拥有平等权利和机会。它是性别间政治、经济和社会平等的理论。”

8岁时,我开始质疑某些基于性别的假设。我不明白,为什么我想在为家长上演的戏剧里担任导演,就会被说成“专横”,而男孩们则不会;

14岁时,我开始被媒体报道的某些元素性别化;

15岁时,我的女性朋友们开始退出各自的运动队,因为她们不希望显得“肌肉发达”;

When at 18 my male friends were unable to express their feelings.

I decided I was a feminist and this seemed uncomplicated to me.

But my recent research has shown me that feminism has become an unpopular word.

Apparently I am among the ranks of women whose expressions are seen as too strong, too aggressive, isolating, anti-men unattractive even.

Why has the world become such an uncomfortable one?

I am from Britain and think it is right that I am paid the same as my male counterparts.I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body.

I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decision-making of my life. I think it is right that socially I am afforded the same respect as men.

But sadly I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights.

No country in the world can yet say they have achieved gender equality.

If you believe in equality, you might be one of those inadvertent feminists I spoke of earlier. And for this I applaud you.

We are struggling for a uniting world but the good news is we have a uniting movement. It is called He For She.

I am inviting you to step forward, to be seen。 And to ask yourself

if not me, who, if not now when. Thank you very very much

18岁时,我的男性朋友们无法表达他们的感受。

我认为自己是一名女权主义者,这(身份认定)对我来说并不难。但我最近的调查发现,女权主义已经成为一个不受欢迎的词。

显然,我成了那些言辞看起来过于强势、过于激进、孤立、反男性、不吸引人的女性行列中的一员。

为什么这个世界如此令人不安?

我来自英国,我认为身为女性,我应该和男性同行获得一样的报酬。我认为我应该自己为自己的身体做决定。

我认为应该有女性代表我参与政治,以及我的国家的决策制定。我认为在社会上,我应该和男性获得相同的尊重。

但遗憾的是,世界上没有一个国家能使所有的女性都能获得上述权利。

世界上没有一个国家能说,他们已经实现了性别平等。

(中间一大段去掉......)

如果你相信平等,你可能是我前头说到的那些无心的女权主义者的一员。

为此,我为你鼓掌喝彩。我们正在努力争取一个团结的世界,好消息是,我们已经有了一个团结的运动。它叫做“他为她”。

我邀请你站出来,展示自己,畅所欲言,成为一个为女性权益奋斗的男性。以及,问自己:如果不是我,那又该是谁;如果不是现在,那又该是何时!

非常谢谢。

范文六:艾玛沃特森联合国演讲的女性主义修辞批评

【摘 要】本文通过应用女性主义修辞批评这一西方修辞批评的重要范式之一,对艾玛沃特森在联合国为“他为她”运动所做的演讲进行分析,以女性主义修辞批评的社会性别理论和语言哲学观为理论基础,阐释艾玛沃特森在演讲中进行性别建构和向父权挑战的过程,以及演讲话语中体现的偏见,从而揭示性别不平等对社会产生的影响。

【关键词】女性主义修辞批评;“他为她”运动;艾玛沃特森

中图分类号:H05 文献标志码:A 文章编号:1007-0125(2015)11-0247-02

一、引言

女性主义修辞批评的诞生与发展与女性主义运动息息相关,美国历史上的三次女性主义浪潮“不仅催生了女性主义修辞批评,也为这种批评范式在方法论上的多样性提供了条件”。[1](P9)福斯(Foss)认为“修辞批评的女性主义视角,是对修辞行为进行分析和评价,为男女进行一种特定的定义”。[2]首先,女性主义修辞批评依赖于“社会性别理论”,也就是,“社会性别可以建构”因为“社会文化”是“造成男女不平等的原因”,意在“描写和阐释修辞者如何通过修辞话语建构性别并影响他人”。 [1](P10)在分析性别建构的基础上,指出“压迫、支配和歧视”确实存在于修辞话语中,并对其进行“挑战”,达到女性主义修辞批评的目的,改变女性在社会中的生存现状。[1](P12)在实际操作中,主要分为三步,“分析性别的建构”,“发掘修辞如何建构父权”,“发掘修辞如何抗拒父权”。[3]再者,女性主义修辞批评依赖于“语言哲学观”,因为“语言的运作在性别的建构中起了关键作用”,意在“找出那些与性别相关的偏见及其社会蕴涵,揭示性别偏见和社会不公的原因”。[1](P11)

二、文本背景

艾玛沃特森,英国女演员,因主演《哈利波特》系列电影中的赫敏一角而走红。虽年纪不大,但她却一直致力于女性运动。2014年7月,她被任命联合国妇女署亲善大使。同年9月,她在位于纽约的联合国总部发表演讲,拉开联合国女性运动He For She的帷幕,还以此身份访问了乌拉圭,并在该国发表演说,强调女性参政权的重要性。2015年1月,在世界经济论坛上就性别平等发表演讲。[4]

“他为她”运动是一项旨在激励男性共同参与争取性别平等的活动。艾玛沃特森作为年轻女性的代表站出来为女性发声是十分适合的。首先,她拥有一定的知名度;其次,她的高学历为她树立了良好的形象;第三,她一直活跃在女性运动中。艾玛沃特森强调女性主义的定义应该是“相信男性和女性应该拥有平等权利和机会。它是性别间政治、经济和社会平等的理论”[5]。

三、性别建构

首先,艾玛沃特森的身份是联合国妇女亲善大使,而她此次演讲的目的是呼吁“结束性别不平等”。[5]她告诉观众“他”才是“他为她”运动中更为重要的因素,而非“她”。她号召更多的男性应该参与到争取性别平等的运动中,而不是认为事不关己。

在艾玛沃特森所进行的女性性别建构中,女性是处于弱势地位的,默默忍受着性别不平等带来的结果。正如她所描述的她与她朋友的经历,她在8岁时因想在上演的戏剧中担任导演而被认为“专横”;14岁时开始被媒体报道的某些元素“性别化”;她的朋友在15岁时因害怕“肌肉发达”开始退出运动队。[5]

艾玛沃特森所构建的男性性别与传统意义上高大的男性形象不同,她关注到的是男性性别中脆弱的一面,指出实际上男性也在接受着性别不平等。第一,在家庭中,母亲的角色被认为远比父亲的角色有价值,尽管孩子的成长需要父亲和母亲的共同参与。父亲在家庭中得不到足够的尊重和重视,这是由男主外女主内这一传统价值标准造成的。第二,男性在不得不面对来自家庭和社会的压力的同时,“自杀成为了20-49岁男性的最大杀手”。[5]对于男性来说,一个被社会所认可的成功男士所要付出的远比想象的多。因此,艾玛沃特森向男性提出“性别平等也与你们有关”,“性别不平等对男性也没有好处”[5]。

男性与女性有各自的优势和劣势,但是女性的劣势在很大程度上被无限放大,因而女性需要为自己的身份而战,展示自己的优势。同时,男性的优势代表着他们的尊严和荣誉,需要他们不遗余力地进行捍卫。其实,“男人和女人都可以敏感”,“男人和女人都可以强壮”。[5]艾玛沃特森从她独特的角度对男性和女性进行性别建构,以此扩大演讲的受众面,一方面呼吁女性继续为她们遭遇的不平等而努力,另一方面更多的是呼吁男性应该站出来为了他们自己支持性别平等。

四、父权的存在和对父权的挑战

“父权”是“主流文化观念”,也是造成“男女性别角色”关系“主体和他者”的原因。[1](P10)“他为她”运动体现了父权的存在。联合国妇女署的存在就是为了尽可能地消除性别不平等,维护妇女权益。艾玛沃特森也在演讲中列举了一些数据和例子,也许需要“75年”甚至“100年”才能做到“男女同工同酬”;到“2086年”,“非洲农村都无法实现所有女孩能接受中等教育”;“1550万”女孩会在未来“16年”被迫“童婚”。[5]女性的处境依然糟糕,仍然遭受来自父权社会的迫害。

作为父权中心的男性,实则正在遭受着父权的内部崩塌。在艾玛沃特森的演讲中,男性不再是强权的象征,他们也拥有生理和心理上的软弱。与直接呼吁女性站起来为自身权益挑战父权的做法不同,艾玛沃特森将目光聚焦到男性身上,质疑父权社会下的男性形象并不是那么高大,希望男性可以正视自己,由此艾玛沃特森含蓄地挑战了父权,达到此次演讲呼吁男女性别平等的目的。

五、语言分析

语言也是体现性别不平等的重要方面,因为“性别是语言运作的结果”。[1](P11)在讲述自身与其朋友的经历时,艾玛沃特森用到“专横”(bossy)来概述他人对于她的评价。“专横”的中文解释是“专断强横”,但是这个词却被用在一个8岁女孩的身上,原因是她想在上演的戏剧中担任导演。导演在一部戏剧中所要发挥的作用显而易见,由一个女孩担任却无法被接受。“肌肉发达”(muscly)则是另一个性别不平等的体现。对于男性来说,“肌肉发达”是阳刚之气的完美展现,但是女性却因为害怕成为男性眼光中的“异类”而退出了运动队。这两个词对于男性来说并非坏事,但是对于女性却是带有贬义色彩的。

六、结语

女性主义修辞批评与女性运动紧密相联,与女性运动共同发展。本文以艾玛沃特森在联合国“他为她”运动的演讲为文本,运用女性主义修辞批评这一范式,认为艾玛沃特森在演讲中重新进行了性别建构,目前女性还是在社会的方方面面遭受着来自父权社会的压迫。与之相对的男性,虽然处于父权的中心,实则也在经历着性别不平等,艾玛沃特森将她的目光扩展到了之前一直置身事外的男性身上,诉说出他们身体以及心理上相同的脆弱之处,由此达到她呼吁男性参与到女性运动中来,一起为性别平等做出努力。

参考文献:

[1]邓志勇,王懋康.修辞批评的女性主义范式:理论与操作[J].外语与外语教学,2008,(8):8-12.

[2] Burgchardt, C. (Ed.) Reading in Rhetorical Criticism [M]. State College, Penn: Strata Publishing Company, 1995.

[3]傅菲菲.安吉丽娜・朱莉《我的医疗选择》的女性主义修辞批评[J].安徽文学,2013,(9):57-58.

[4] The Independent, Marie Claire, UN org, Business Insider. Emma Watson[G/OL]. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Watson. 2015-10-01.

[5]新浪教育.2014经典演讲之艾玛沃特森联合国演讲(双语)[DB/OL].http://edu.sina.com.cn/en/2015-01-21/174787225.shtml.2015-9-29.【摘 要】本文通过应用女性主义修辞批评这一西方修辞批评的重要范式之一,对艾玛沃特森在联合国为“他为她”运动所做的演讲进行分析,以女性主义修辞批评的社会性别理论和语言哲学观为理论基础,阐释艾玛沃特森在演讲中进行性别建构和向父权挑战的过程,以及演讲话语中体现的偏见,从而揭示性别不平等对社会产生的影响。

【关键词】女性主义修辞批评;“他为她”运动;艾玛沃特森

中图分类号:H05 文献标志码:A 文章编号:1007-0125(2015)11-0247-02

一、引言

女性主义修辞批评的诞生与发展与女性主义运动息息相关,美国历史上的三次女性主义浪潮“不仅催生了女性主义修辞批评,也为这种批评范式在方法论上的多样性提供了条件”。[1](P9)福斯(Foss)认为“修辞批评的女性主义视角,是对修辞行为进行分析和评价,为男女进行一种特定的定义”。[2]首先,女性主义修辞批评依赖于“社会性别理论”,也就是,“社会性别可以建构”因为“社会文化”是“造成男女不平等的原因”,意在“描写和阐释修辞者如何通过修辞话语建构性别并影响他人”。 [1](P10)在分析性别建构的基础上,指出“压迫、支配和歧视”确实存在于修辞话语中,并对其进行“挑战”,达到女性主义修辞批评的目的,改变女性在社会中的生存现状。[1](P12)在实际操作中,主要分为三步,“分析性别的建构”,“发掘修辞如何建构父权”,“发掘修辞如何抗拒父权”。[3]再者,女性主义修辞批评依赖于“语言哲学观”,因为“语言的运作在性别的建构中起了关键作用”,意在“找出那些与性别相关的偏见及其社会蕴涵,揭示性别偏见和社会不公的原因”。[1](P11)

二、文本背景

艾玛沃特森,英国女演员,因主演《哈利波特》系列电影中的赫敏一角而走红。虽年纪不大,但她却一直致力于女性运动。2014年7月,她被任命联合国妇女署亲善大使。同年9月,她在位于纽约的联合国总部发表演讲,拉开联合国女性运动He For She的帷幕,还以此身份访问了乌拉圭,并在该国发表演说,强调女性参政权的重要性。2015年1月,在世界经济论坛上就性别平等发表演讲。[4]

“他为她”运动是一项旨在激励男性共同参与争取性别平等的活动。艾玛沃特森作为年轻女性的代表站出来为女性发声是十分适合的。首先,她拥有一定的知名度;其次,她的高学历为她树立了良好的形象;第三,她一直活跃在女性运动中。艾玛沃特森强调女性主义的定义应该是“相信男性和女性应该拥有平等权利和机会。它是性别间政治、经济和社会平等的理论”[5]。

三、性别建构

首先,艾玛沃特森的身份是联合国妇女亲善大使,而她此次演讲的目的是呼吁“结束性别不平等”。[5]她告诉观众“他”才是“他为她”运动中更为重要的因素,而非“她”。她号召更多的男性应该参与到争取性别平等的运动中,而不是认为事不关己。

在艾玛沃特森所进行的女性性别建构中,女性是处于弱势地位的,默默忍受着性别不平等带来的结果。正如她所描述的她与她朋友的经历,她在8岁时因想在上演的戏剧中担任导演而被认为“专横”;14岁时开始被媒体报道的某些元素“性别化”;她的朋友在15岁时因害怕“肌肉发达”开始退出运动队。[5]

艾玛沃特森所构建的男性性别与传统意义上高大的男性形象不同,她关注到的是男性性别中脆弱的一面,指出实际上男性也在接受着性别不平等。第一,在家庭中,母亲的角色被认为远比父亲的角色有价值,尽管孩子的成长需要父亲和母亲的共同参与。父亲在家庭中得不到足够的尊重和重视,这是由男主外女主内这一传统价值标准造成的。第二,男性在不得不面对来自家庭和社会的压力的同时,“自杀成为了20-49岁男性的最大杀手”。[5]对于男性来说,一个被社会所认可的成功男士所要付出的远比想象的多。因此,艾玛沃特森向男性提出“性别平等也与你们有关”,“性别不平等对男性也没有好处”[5]。

男性与女性有各自的优势和劣势,但是女性的劣势在很大程度上被无限放大,因而女性需要为自己的身份而战,展示自己的优势。同时,男性的优势代表着他们的尊严和荣誉,需要他们不遗余力地进行捍卫。其实,“男人和女人都可以敏感”,“男人和女人都可以强壮”。[5]艾玛沃特森从她独特的角度对男性和女性进行性别建构,以此扩大演讲的受众面,一方面呼吁女性继续为她们遭遇的不平等而努力,另一方面更多的是呼吁男性应该站出来为了他们自己支持性别平等。

四、父权的存在和对父权的挑战

“父权”是“主流文化观念”,也是造成“男女性别角色”关系“主体和他者”的原因。[1](P10)“他为她”运动体现了父权的存在。联合国妇女署的存在就是为了尽可能地消除性别不平等,维护妇女权益。艾玛沃特森也在演讲中列举了一些数据和例子,也许需要“75年”甚至“100年”才能做到“男女同工同酬”;到“2086年”,“非洲农村都无法实现所有女孩能接受中等教育”;“1550万”女孩会在未来“16年”被迫“童婚”。[5]女性的处境依然糟糕,仍然遭受来自父权社会的迫害。

作为父权中心的男性,实则正在遭受着父权的内部崩塌。在艾玛沃特森的演讲中,男性不再是强权的象征,他们也拥有生理和心理上的软弱。与直接呼吁女性站起来为自身权益挑战父权的做法不同,艾玛沃特森将目光聚焦到男性身上,质疑父权社会下的男性形象并不是那么高大,希望男性可以正视自己,由此艾玛沃特森含蓄地挑战了父权,达到此次演讲呼吁男女性别平等的目的。

五、语言分析

语言也是体现性别不平等的重要方面,因为“性别是语言运作的结果”。[1](P11)在讲述自身与其朋友的经历时,艾玛沃特森用到“专横”(bossy)来概述他人对于她的评价。“专横”的中文解释是“专断强横”,但是这个词却被用在一个8岁女孩的身上,原因是她想在上演的戏剧中担任导演。导演在一部戏剧中所要发挥的作用显而易见,由一个女孩担任却无法被接受。“肌肉发达”(muscly)则是另一个性别不平等的体现。对于男性来说,“肌肉发达”是阳刚之气的完美展现,但是女性却因为害怕成为男性眼光中的“异类”而退出了运动队。这两个词对于男性来说并非坏事,但是对于女性却是带有贬义色彩的。

六、结语

女性主义修辞批评与女性运动紧密相联,与女性运动共同发展。本文以艾玛沃特森在联合国“他为她”运动的演讲为文本,运用女性主义修辞批评这一范式,认为艾玛沃特森在演讲中重新进行了性别建构,目前女性还是在社会的方方面面遭受着来自父权社会的压迫。与之相对的男性,虽然处于父权的中心,实则也在经历着性别不平等,艾玛沃特森将她的目光扩展到了之前一直置身事外的男性身上,诉说出他们身体以及心理上相同的脆弱之处,由此达到她呼吁男性参与到女性运动中来,一起为性别平等做出努力。

参考文献:

[1]邓志勇,王懋康.修辞批评的女性主义范式:理论与操作[J].外语与外语教学,2008,(8):8-12.

[2] Burgchardt, C. (Ed.) Reading in Rhetorical Criticism [M]. State College, Penn: Strata Publishing Company, 1995.

[3]傅菲菲.安吉丽娜・朱莉《我的医疗选择》的女性主义修辞批评[J].安徽文学,2013,(9):57-58.

[4] The Independent, Marie Claire, UN org, Business Insider. Emma Watson[G/OL]. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Watson. 2015-10-01.

[5]新浪教育.2014经典演讲之艾玛沃特森联合国演讲(双语)[DB/OL].http://edu.sina.com.cn/en/2015-01-21/174787225.shtml.2015-9-29.

范文七:艾玛.沃特森演讲稿

Today we are launching a campaign called “He For She。”

今天,我们启动了一项名为“他为她”的运动。

I am reaching out to you because I need your help. We want to end gender in equality—and to do that we need everyone to be involved。

我向你伸出手,因为我需要你的帮助。我们希望终结性别不平等——为此,我们需要所有人都参与其中。

This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN: we want to try and galvanize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates forgender equality. And we don’t just want to talk about it, but make sure it is tangible。

这是联合国同类运动中的第一项:我们希望努力并激励尽可能多的男人和男孩倡导性别平等。而且希望这(性别平等)不只是空谈,而是确确实实的看得见摸得着。

I was appointed six months ago and the more I have spoken about feminism the more I have realized that fighting for women’s rightshas too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I know for certain, it is that this has to stop。

六个月前,我被任命为联合国妇女亲善大使。而随着我谈论女权主义越多,我越发现,“争取女性权益”太容易被当作是“憎恨男人”的同义词。如果说有一件事是我确实知道的,那就是,这样的误解必须停止。

For the record, feminism by definition is: “The belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of the political, economic and social equality of the sexes。” 必须郑重声明,女权主义的定义是:“相信男性和女性应该拥有平等权利和机会。它是性别间政治、经济和社会平等的理论。”

I started questioning gender-based assumptions when at eight I was confused at being called “bossy,” because I wanted to direct the plays we would put on for our parents—but the boys were not。

8岁时,我开始质疑某些基于性别的假设。我不明白,为什么我想在为家长[微博]上演的戏剧里担任导演,就会被说成“专横”,而男孩们则不会;

When at 14 I started being sexualized by certain elements of the press。

14岁时,我开始被媒体报道的某些元素性别化;

When at 15 my girlfriends started dropping out of their sports teams because they didn’t want to appear “muscly。”

15岁时,我的女性朋友们开始退出各自的运动队,因为她们不希望显得“肌肉发达”; When at 18 my male friends were unable to express their feelings。

18岁时,我的男性朋友们无法表达他们的感受。

I decided I was a feminist and this seemed uncomplicated to me. But my recent research has shown me that feminism has become an unpopular word。

我认为自己是一名女权主义者,这(身份认定)对我来说并不难。但我最近的调查发现,女权主义已经成为一个不受欢迎的词。

Apparently I am among the ranks of women whose expressions are seen as too strong, too aggressive, isolating, anti-men and,unattractive。

显然,我成了那些言辞看起来过于强势、过于激进、孤立、反男性、不吸引人的女性行列中的一员。

Why is the word such an uncomfortable one?

为什么这个词如此令人不安?

I am from Britain and think it is right that as a woman I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decision-making of my country. I think it is right that socially I am afforded the same respect as men. But sadly I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights。

我来自英国,我认为身为女性,我应该和男性同行获得一样的报酬。我认为我应该自己为自己的身体做决定。我认为应该有女性代表我参与政治,以及我的国家的决策制定。我认为在社会上,我应该和男性获得相同的尊重。但遗憾的是,世界上没有一个国家能使所有的女性都能获得上述权利。

No country in the world can yet say they have achieved gender equality。

世界上没有一个国家能说,他们已经实现了性别平等。

These rights I consider to be human rights but I am one of the lucky ones. My life is a sheer privilege because my parents didn’t love me less because I was born a daughter. My school did not limit me because I was a girl. My mentors didn’t assume I would go less far because I might give birth to a child one day. These influencers were the gender equality ambassadors that made who I am today. They may not know it, but they are the inadvertent feminists who are. And we need more of those. And if you still hate the word—it is not the word that is important but the idea and the ambition behind it. Because not all women have been afforded the same rights that I have. In fact, statistically, very few have been。

这些权利,我认为是每个人都该享有,然而(事实是)我只是众多幸运儿中的一个。我的生活是完完全全的特例,因为我的父母没有因为我生为女儿而减少对我的爱,我的学校没有因为我是女孩而限制我,我的导师没有因为我将来可能要生孩子而认为我会走不远。这些影响了我的人,都是性别平等大使,是他们造就了今天的我。他们也许并不知道,但他们是无心的女权主义者。而我们现在,则需要更多这样的人。所以,如果你仍然憎恨这个词——重要的不是这个词,而是它背后的想法和抱负。因为并不是所有女性都能够享有我所拥有的权利。事实上,从统计数据看,真的非常少。

In 1997, Hilary Clinton made a famous speech in Beijing about women’s rights. Sadly many of the things she wanted to change are still a reality today。

1997年,希拉里克林顿在北京做了一个关于女性权益的着名演讲。很遗憾,很多她希望改变的事实今天仍存在。

But what stood out for me the most was that only 30per cent of her audience were male. How can we affect change in the world when only half of it is invited or feel welcome to participate in the conversation?

我注意到,听众里只有30%是男性。当只有世界上的一半的人参与并融入这场对话时,我们怎么可能做出影响世界的改变?

Men—I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue too。

男人们——我希望利用这个机会正式的邀请你们加入。性别平等也与你们有关。

Because to date, I’ve seen my father’s role as a parent being valued less by society despite my needing his presence as a child as much as my mother’s。

因为到目前为止,我看到,我父亲作为家长所发挥的作用被社会所低估,虽然作为孩子,我所需要的他的陪伴和我需要母亲的一样多。

I’ve seen young men suffering from mental illness unable to ask for help for fear it would make them look less “macho”—in fact in the UK suicide is the biggest killer of men between 20-49; eclipsing road accidents, cancer and coronary heart disease. I’ve seen men made fragile and insecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success. Men don’t have the benefits of equality either。 我看到,年轻男性因为害怕自己显得不够“男子汉大丈夫”,从而在承受心理困扰时窘于寻求帮助——事实上,在英国,自杀已经是20-49岁男性的第一死亡原因,比交通事故、癌症和冠心病造成的死亡都多。我看到,男人因为对男性成功的扭曲理解而感到脆弱和不安全。性别不平等对男性也没有好处。

We don’t often talk about men being imprisoned by gender stereotypes but I can see that that they are and that when they are free, things will change for women as a natural consequence。

我们并不常谈及男人因为性别刻板印象而入狱,不过我可以看到,事情真是这样。并且当他们自由时,女性的境遇也会自然发生变化。

If men don’t have to be aggressive in order to be accepted women won’t feel compelled to be submissive. If men don’t have to control, women won’t have to be controlled。

如果男性不再为了被认可而变得强势好斗,女性也不会再感到被迫逆来顺受。如果男性不再被迫掌控一切,女性也不会再被迫受掌控。

Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive.Both men and women should feel free to be strong… It is time that we all perceive gender on a spectrum not as two opposing sets of ideals。 男人和女人都可以敏感;男人和女人都可以强壮……是时候把性别理解为光谱,而不是南辕北辙的两派。

If we stop defining each other by what we are not and start defining ourselves by what we are—we can all be freer and this is what He For She is about. It’s about freedom。

如果我们不再把对方定义为自己的对立面,而是把对方定义为我们的一员——我们都会更加自由。这就是“他为她”运动所倡导的。这就是自由。

I want men to take up this mantle. So their daughters,sisters and mothers can be free from prejudice but also so that their sons have permission to be vulnerable and human too—reclaim those parts of themselves they abandoned and in doing so be a more true and complete version of themselves。

我希望男性负起这个责任。这样他们的女儿、姐妹和母亲都能够拥有免于偏见的自由,同时,他们的儿子也能被允许脆弱和感性——拥有这些他们曾经摈弃的特质,他们才是更真实和完整的自己。

You might be thinking who is this Harry Potter girl?And what is she doing up on stage at the UN. It’s a good question and trust me ,I have been asking myself the same thing. I don’t know if I am qualified to be here. All I know is that I care about this problem. And I want to make it better。

你可能会想,这个从《哈利波特》里走出的姑娘是谁?她在联合国的讲台上做什么?这是一个好问题。相信我,我也问过自己相同的问题。我不知道我是否够格站在这里。我所知道的是我关心这个问题。我希望它能变好。

And having seen what I’ve seen—and given the chance—I feel it is my duty to say something. English statesman Edmund Burke said: “All that is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for enough good men and women to do nothing。”

同时,因为我目睹过那些事情——并且我又有机会——我感到自己有责任说些什么。英国政治家埃德蒙德?伯克曾说:“恶势力要想取胜很容易,只要足够多的、善良的男人和女人们什么都不做就可以了。”

In my nervousness for this speech and in my moments of doubt I’ve told myself firmly—if not me, who, if not now, when. If you have similar doubts when opportunities are presented to you I hope those words might be helpful。

当我为这次演讲感到紧张和疑虑时,我坚定的告诉自己——如果不是我,那又该是谁;如果不是现在,那又该是何时?如果当你面对机会时也有类似的疑虑,希望这些话能对你有所帮助。 Because the reality is that if we do nothing it will take 75 years, or for me to be nearly a hundred before women can expect to be paid the same as men for the same work. 15.5 million girls will be married in the next 16 years as children. And at current rates it won’t be until 2086before all rural African girls will be able to receive a secondary education。

因为现实是,如果我们什么也不做,那么女性实现与男性同工同酬需要花上75年,而要我说,这恐怕得花上几乎一百年。1550万女孩会在未来16年被迫童婚。同时,按现在的发展速度,在2086年以前,非洲农村都无法实现所有女孩都能接受中等教育。

If you believe in equality, you might be one of those inadvertent feminists I spoke of earlier。 如果你相信平等,你可能是我前头说到的那些无心的女权主义者的一员。

And for this I applaud you。

为此,我为你鼓掌喝彩。

We are struggling for a uniting word but the good news is we have a uniting movement. It is called He For She. I am inviting you to step forward, to be seen to speak up, To be the he for she. And to ask yourself if not me, who?if not now when?我们

正在努力争取一个团结的世界,好消息是,我们已经有了一个团结的运动。它叫做“他为她”。我邀请你站出来,展示自己,畅所欲言,成为一个为女性权益奋斗的男性。以及,问自己:如果不是我,那又该是谁;如果不是现在,那又该是何时!

Thank you.

谢谢。

范文八:艾玛沃森达沃斯经济论坛演讲

艾玛·沃森达Emma Watson沃斯论坛演讲

Since HeForShe launched in New York last September, I think it would be fair to say that my colleagues and I have been stunned by the response.

The HeForShe conference was watched over 11 million times, sparking 1.2 billionsocial media conversations, culminating in the #HeForShre hashtag becoming sopopular that Twitter painted it on the walls of its headquarters. And men from almost every country in the world signed up to our commitment.

Everyone, from Desmond Tutu to Prince Harry to Hillary Clinton to Yoko Ono have issued their support or contacted us since September 20th. Everything from marathons being run, merchandise being created, 15-year-old boys writing to national newspapers deploring female discrimination, young girls collecting hundreds of signatures – it’s all happened in the last four months. I couldn’t have dreamed it, but it’s happened. Thank you so much. Thank you so much for watching and thank you so much for your support.

So what is IMPACT 10x10x10? It’s about engaging governments, businesses, and universities and having them make concrete commitments to gender equality. But I want to hear from the human beings that are behind these organizations. I spoke about some of my story in September; what are your stories?

Girls, who have been your mentors? Parents, did you make sure you treated your children equally? If so, how have you done it?

Husbands, have you been supporting your female partner privately so she can fulfill her dreams too?

Young men, have you spoken up in a conversation when a woman was casually degraded or dismissed? How did this affect you? How did this affect the woman you stepped up for?

Business men, have you mentored, supported, or engaged women in leadership positions? Writers, have you challenged the language and imagery used to portray women in the media?

CEOs: Have you implemented the women’s empowerment principles in your own company? What change have you seen? Are you someone that has been persuading men to become He for Shes and collecting their signatures for their website? How many have you got?

We want to know. We want to hear from you.

One of the biggest pieces of feedback I’ve had since my speech is that men and women want to help but they aren’t sure how best to do it. Men say they’ve signed the petition. ‘What now?’ The truth is, the ‘what now’ is down to you. What your He for She commitment will be is personal and there is no best way. Everything is valid. Decide what your commitment is, make it public, and then please report back to us on your progress so that we can share your story.

We want to support, guide and reinforce your efforts.

IMPACT 10x10x10 is about concrete commitments to change, the visibility of thesecommitments and the measurability of them, too.

How has the campaign impacted me so far?

I’ve had my breath taken away when a fan told me that since watching my speech she has stopped herself being beaten up by her father.

I’ve been stunned by the amount of men in my life that have contacted me since my speech to tell me to keep going, and that they want to make sure that their daughters will still be alive to see a world where women have parity economically and politically. While I would love to claim that uh…this campaign and the results of it are a result of my incredible speech writing skills, I know that it is not.

It is because the ground is fertile. It is my belief that there is a greater understanding than ever that women need to be equal participants in our homes, in our societies, in our governments and in our workplaces, and they know that the world is being held back in every way because they are not.

Women share this planet 50/50 and they are under – underrepresented, their potential astonishingly untapped.

We are very excited to be launching IMPACT 10X10X10 to bring He for She into its next phase.

If you’re a He for She, and I’m assuming you are because otherwise you’d be in somebody else’s press conference right now, I’m here to ask YOU: What is the impact you can have? How, what, where, when, and with whom?

We want to help. We want to know. And we want to here from you. Thank you very much.

范文九:从艾玛·沃特森的HeForShe运动演讲和弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫的《一间自己

。廖

丹丹

要摘:通 过 阅读艾玛 ・ 沃特 森 ( E mma   W t a   osn ) H e 的  Fo r  Sh e 运 的 演动 讲联, 想到弗 吉 尼亚 ・ 伍 尔 夫 一  自己间

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者。 同 9年月 ,她 在位于 纽 约的联 合国总部 发 表 演 ,为 说 女能 自 由 地 表达 脆 ; 男 弱 和人 女 都 应人 该 自能由 地 展 现坚

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亲 能都拥 没 有抱性 别 视 歧的  仅 来 要论 谈这 话 题 ,个 更确要保性 别平 等 能 成为 事 实 。   自由; 同 时 , 们他的 儿子 能也 显露 脆 和弱感 性 的一 面— —

着随女 主 义 被越 性越 多来地 提起,对 女 性 主义的 误 解也  因 ,只为 有通过 重 新 取回 这 些 曾 被经 他 们 摈弃 的 质特 他  ,越 越 多 来 我,们 应 该 停 止这 样的 误 解 。女 性 主 义 的 定义   们才 能成 为 真更 实 和更完 的整 自 己我 。 们由此 可 以清晰  地

: 是  相信“男性 和女 性 该应 被予 平赋 等 的利 权机 和 。会  看到 她 要 给 我们 传 的 达思 想:女性 独 立 并不 仅 是 仅 女 性 自  它是 关于 两 在性政 治 、 经济 和 社 会上享 有平 地 等位 的  己的理 ,事 两性 平 等的 也需 要 男 性 为 此做出努 力 这,样 不 仅  论 。 艾”玛 她从 个 人的成 长 经 历讲 ,讲 起述 她 和 身她边  的 对 是女 性的 真 正 解 , 也放 是对 男 性解 的放 , 而从 实现真 正 女 性  及男 性 朋友 对女 性主义 态的度 , 女性 主 义者是 不 欢 受 的 性两平 等 从。 中可 以看 到 其 女 性 主 义思 想的 进 步 性 ,由  迎 的 ,性女主 是令义人不快的 词以,这 些现及象产生的原   之前 强 调女 性要 争 取自 己的权 利到 现 在 呼吁 男性 和 性 要女 因 更。 进 一 步说 性 ,别 的 平 , 其 实 也等是 对 男 性的一种 解 共  同为 女性 义主 实 的 和 实 践现真 正 的 两性 平 等作 出 力努 ,   放也, 是男性 应 该 争取 的权 益 。 艾 玛 说 : “ 看我 到 过 年轻 这是我们 这 时代和 个际社会 的国步 进更 ,女性在 是想思 上他 为她 则 是” 要   的性 男, 在 遭受 精 神 病 折疾磨 不时去 寻 求 帮 ,助就因 为害  的 一大 步 进从 。当 社 今 会的 层面来 讲 “  , 怕这 会让 自 显己得 不 够有‘ 男 子 汉 气 概 ’—— 事 实 ,上在  求 女 性与 男 性一 样, 政在 治经 权济 上 享 利有对 等 的 地位 ,英 , 自杀国 是2O 至49 岁 男性 的第 一 死 因 , 超 远交 事通 故 、 同 时 社会 文 化体 制 能 够 传达 更 多 男的 平女 等的 思 ,想营造 癌  症和 冠心 病 造 成 的死 亡人数 。我看 到 过 ,男 人 们因 为 对  更 完 整 的精 神 围氛, 使男 女 在 社 活 会 中享 动 对有 等的话语   男 成性功 标 的准曲 解而变 得 弱脆和 缺 乏 全 安感 。男 性 们也 权 。 如比韩 国 总 朴瑾 统惠的 上 任 , 比如 正

在 竞 美选国 总  统没 有 受享到 平 等的权利 。 我不想 说 男性们 被性 别 刻板 印 象  的 希 拉 里, 这些 都 能 映 社 会 的进反 步 与放开 , 予 给 了 女 性 所禁 锢 ,但是 我 以 看 到 事 可 实 确上实 如 。 当此他 们t t 的由  多更和男性 一样的政 治面 方的权利和 自。由在性主女 义   这 时 ,候自然 然而, 女性 也 会 得 到 改 变 。如 果 男 性 必 不非要  条 道 路上我 们已 经走 了 远很, 今 我 后 还们 会走 得更 远 。有 野 心 , 性 女然 也自 不 必非得 被迫 顺 从。如 果 男 不性必 去   过 同 来头了 解 下 吉 弗尼 亚・ 伍尔 夫弗。吉 尼 亚・ 伍  尔V i rg i n i  aW o o lf 是 )英国 伟 大 的小 说 家 、散 文家 和 文 艺  控 制, 女 性 也 不 必被 控制 。这 时 们我就 能看 到 性两 和谐 相  夫 ( 而 不处是 互 相 对 立了 。我 们应 该 止 为停彼此 定 义。 我们 是  批 评家。 在 2 0 世 的 纪 世界 坛文 她 , 不 仅以 意识 的流 出 杰 代 谁 ?我们 可 更 以自由 , 这 是 H e 就F o  r   h eS 运动 的 意 义所  表这 身一份 进入 文学 史 学 和 研术 究视的 野 更 ,一 位以 超

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代时 女的性 主 义 思 想家 的 姿 态 被人 所 铭们记 。 她的散文 、

这 样

他 的 们 女儿 母 、亲、 姐 妹 可摆 以 偏脱见 , 他 们 的 儿 子   随笔 和 书评 卓 大 家 然、文 风 优美 。  《 一问 自己房 子 》 的 o f O  n e S   wO n) 是 她主 女 张权 运动 的 部一 名著 。  可以 被 允 脆 弱 许、平 凡 成 , 为 更真实 、更完 整 的 自 己 。  所 , 男以人 们 没也有 受 享到 性 平 等别 。我 们并不 常 谈  及在 部这作 品 中 她 大 量,采 用 与 父 权 文化截 然 同不的 非正统

2 01 . 510

的理 文 体 论和话 语方 式来阐 述 观 点 、 议 世论风 。 作 品 从 书 有 多  男 性少 女 性 与 识 不 到意 如该 何 对 待 性女 , 性女 名 、 地 到 名人物 场 、 景、 件事, 都 满 各 充 意种象 ,蕴 含   丰地的位 到 底该 是 怎样的 ? 如 正 易b 的 生《 偶玩之 家 》 展所

义意。这 是一 理论本 作杰 ,在这 书本里, 伍尔夫用趣风  示 的 ,海尔 茂 说 : 别 的“不 用 说 ,首 先 你是 个一 老 婆,一  幽 默

的语言 清 、晰 流 畅的论 述 ,强有 力 地阐 明

了自 己 观 的 个母 。 ”娜亲拉 答 回 :说 “现 在 我 只 信 我 是,一 个 人 ,  跟和 点思 想 她 。 本 书 在 中述阐了 女性 在 社 中会长期 处 于 劣 势  一 你 样的 一个 —人 —至 少 我 学要会 做 一 个 。 ” 人“ 一我定

地位 ,遭

着 种种不公 与受 偏见的 现实 提 出了,女要性有自  要 弄清 楚 究竟, 是社正会 还确我是 确 正 ”娜。终 拉于离开  己 独 立的生 活 和思 想 空 间 强 , 女性 调和 男性 间之的 差 异 ,  了这 个 “ 玩 偶 之 家 ” 全。剧 以“ 砰的”响 一(关 大 门的

声强调 要 发挥 出 女性 的最 大 势优 来, 完 成 于 属自己 的宏 伟 事  音 ) 结 束 被。海 茂森当作 “ 宝 小”贝 小“鸽 子 ” 的 娜 拉   业 终。 是 这 样正 鲜明 的观点 , 使这 本 历 来书被 视 为 权 女主义   意 识于 到自己之 是 前 一 “ 离个不开 别照人 的顾东小西”,  的 表 代作 品。论 述中 ,伍尔 夫 身 为 一 化个名 叫玛 丽 女  的 没她 有由自 独 地立 生 过活 她 要,冲 破 一切 绊羁 要, 会 学独 人 在,一 个 朗 晴 十 的月 上 午坐 在岸 出河神发 呆。 玛 丽 思神 立 生活 。伍 尔夫 更 是 通 《过一 间 自 的己 房子 》 更 充 分 地 加 所及 有 :河, 河 岸 上的灌 木丛,河 面 船 的 划 大学生 及 河  中论述 了 女 性独 立 的 重要 性, 呼 吁 更多 女性 敢 于 追 求 自 己 的 倒  影 牛, 津 或 桥剑大 学 校 园 里的草 皮 与,学 院 图书及馆   精相 神活 生,无论是继还承 是 的方 式,别五百英有 镑属和  关 的 于那 些文 与 稿 者 学 , 所 信谓仰 与 理 性 的 本 位 金基 ,石 浇  己自 房 的 子就 更 能 多 拥 地 有 性 独女 立 的 空 间这 , 现和在  的 了 奶 油 鳎 的 鱼,带土 豆 片调、 汁 和 凉味拌 菜 烤 山的 …鹑 … 观  “点 每 结个了 婚 女的 性都该 有 一 间 属于 自己 的洗 手 间” 伍 尔夫文在 中反地复 调 “强五 英 镑百 和一 间 自 的房 己子”   是有 几 相 似分 的从 女。 性 主义 的 视 来 分 析 角经, 济 由对  自 重 的 性要, 实 也其 就 是在 讲 经 济 由能 够自给 予女性 更 多  的性各个女方 面的自主 选 权 ,择及 以在庭家 、会社 中位地的   生 空 存 间 更 , 地好满 足 精 神 由自的 追 寻 那 。么从 古 至今  ,改 善都 有 极积 作用。 我们 感 谢 早 先那 敢 于 冲 些 破当时 俗 世女 性 地 位的到 底 经 历 了 怎 的变样化 女 性?地 位的 提 高 与 独  思 想 禁 锢 的 女

性给 我们 开 了女 性 义主 的 先 河无 论 , 法是  国立都 要 些需什 ?么今 社当人会们是 如理解 何对待和 性主 女的波 娃 、伏 国英伍的尔夫 、美 的国特 ・凯 米特还莱是现在  义 的 这?些 都 将 是 需要 我 们 讨 论 的 。  的 艾玛 沃 特 森 ・,还有 些 那未提 及姓 名 的 政 家 、治 思想  《 圣 经 》说 帝上先 造 了亚 当 ,后怕 亚 当 寂 寞 造 就 了  家 、文 学 家 学 者 、 女和性 主 者 义,她 们 的 努 力 让 现 的 在女  夏 。娃夏娃 是上帝 用亚当 身 上的 根肋一 骨 做 的。 “ 罪原  性 了更 有 选 择 多权 利 ,更 的多 的 神 精由。自   说里 讲”, 夏 娃 诱引 亚偷 食当禁 果 , 帝上 罚惩 娃 :夏“ 我  当 今 会 社, 无论 中 国还 是 海外 , 性女 主义 都 不 再 个是  必多 多 加 增你 孕怀的 苦 楚 ,你 生 产儿 必 女多 受苦 , 你 楚  必新 词 的语, 但仍有 许 人 对多其 充 满 误 解 和敌 意 。 实 女其性   慕 恋 丈你夫 你 丈, 夫必管 辖 你 ”。 男主外 女 , 内 的 主 想 思 主 义是 “不 咬 人”的 , 正如 我 的们社 会 倡 人导人 平 等 、强   以直来 在社 会上 统占 治地 位 ,这 其中 既 有宗 教想思的 渗 调 人 文 关怀 女, 主 性 义便 是在 强 调——或 者 更 准 确 地说 ,  透 , 又具 有 会 的 社 现实性 。所以 伍 尔夫 在 《 间一 己自 房的  议倡对 性 的女文人怀关,希 望 女享男平等有 的受尊重的权  子 里》 用看似随意 , 实智 慧则语言的告诉 女 性:如 果 想你  利 ,正 如 艾玛 所讲:我 望 希 性男可 挑 起 这以 担子 。这个

写作 ,首 先 要有 五 百英 镑 和一 间 于 属己 自的带 锁 房 子 的。 样 , 他 们 的 儿女 姐 妹 和 、母 亲 都能 拥 没 有 性抱 别歧视 的  自 引 申 开来便 是 对女 性 自 由 的 呼唤 呼 唤, 当时 的 女 觉性 醒 起 由 同; , 他时 们 儿的 也 子能显 露 弱 脆 感 性 和 的 一 面 — 因 — 来,而 不 只 以是家 庭为 生 活半径 ,依 附 于 男性。 性女的 才   为只, 有通 重过 新 取回这 些 曾 被经他 们 摈 的 弃特质 他,们 华 得 不 到 施 展 的 原 是因多 方 面 的 但,主 要 有 两点:第 一 ,   才能 成 为 真更实 和 更 整 完 的己 自。使 两 性平 等成为 事实 不 当  时 社 会 的 环境 和人文 氛围 女 性给 置 了 枷设锁 。 男 权 识意   是 女 性仅 责 的任 ,这也 是 对 男 的性 呼 吁。 于 对一些 新 报 闻主 导下 ,女 的性 责便是相 夫职子

教,其生 活径是半 庭家 ,  道家 暴的 、 就 业受 视歧 、 精 上神 侮 受辱与 虐待 等 现 , 我 象

抛该头 露面 不 , 写该 出作 书,不该 追 精求 神自由 。第 们  应当 坚抗决与谴议 责, 而除了 界外给 予所的努外 ,力女 二  ,受教宗从 及小所 受教的导的影响 , 时 的女当性无意识   性自更身需 要清 认自己身份 的与 位 ,为置女性 独立实现  地 接 受和 了女 性就 应 该 属 于从 男 ,而 性通 过 作 写挣钱 乃 至  两 性 的真独正 平 等添 砖 加 瓦。

立 是 令 人不 齿 的这 一思想 。 一 个 人的 思想 大不 过 她 的 见  所 闻所, 生 存 空间 决定 了一 个人 的 视 野, 也 决 定 了一 个 人看  释 注 :

】1本段 容内来自网 翻络译   。问 题 角 度的 。这也 无 乎 伍 尔 夫怪 在 书图馆 找不 到多 少伟 大  [ 的女性 品作 太 , 多 女性被 家庭 和 当 时的 会 意社识 束所 缚,   参 考 文 :   1献 吴]晓译雷, 弗尼亚 吉・伍 尔夫 .一 自间的房己子 (A R o o  m f o  没 有那 五 百英 镑, 更 提 别 间一 自己 的 子房 ,其智 的 慧 光灵 [ 要  么 闪一而过 ,要 么 被 扼杀在 摇篮 。里 O  n e ’   O s nw) M[】 . 西 安:陕师西范大学版出社有总 限公 司,2 O l 4.

在伍尔 夫 下笔, 房 早 已 突 破子 了 其 作为物 质 实体 功  的[2 ]常 信耀. 国英学文简史[ M 】. 天 津南:开 大出学社,版2O l   .3   用 在所, 成 了女 性 独 立的 标 志 , 个 体 是赖以 存 在的私 人 空  [ 3 】 刘炳.善英 国文学 简史[ M M . ]郑州河南人 民:版出,社 0 2 70.  4

】郑鲁 ,克 黄宝生,陈建华, 承勇蒋. 外 文国学 史 上 ([)M ] . 北  间, 它承载 女了性 特 殊 的体 验 和 意 识 成 ,为女 性 情感 和  心 [ 灵 载 的 体而 。男权中 心 观 念 和价 值 标 准 对 性女作 家 精 自   神:高京教育等 版社出,2 0 06 .

由的严重 影 响,更 赋予 了 经 独 济立对 于 女 写性作 与 追求  精 [5 】Ⅸ 经圣 ・ 世 创纪》( 中对英照 ) M ] [. NI V 新国际中 和文合本,   0 2 】4   神. 由自 重要意 义 。 她 写道 : “ 独 立, 对于 个 女 一人来 说   , 乃 第 是一需 。要” 只 有 女当 性走 出 家 , 取 庭 经 得 独 济立,  才 保能 存自我 进 而, 促 自 己进 全的 面 解放。所 以, 1 9 9 年  l 英国国 会 通 过 案法, 取 消 对 妇 就女

业 的限 ,伍制 尔 夫就 给 予   高 度了评 价 但。 ,是和 当 时大 多 女 数 主 性义 者 不 同伍  , 尔 夫 还 敏 地锐 察 觉到 性 别 之间 的 冲 不突 仅 仅表 在现政 治 和 法 律 制  上 的不度对 等 更, 表现 为 思 意想 形 态识上 的对立 。

( 丹廖

丹陕西

工学院理文学

院聋

7 2 30 0 0)    詈三

2 1 06 .10

范文十:艾玛·沃森强悍之美

人生之强者,无论哪一方面的,都会散发出“我的人生我说了算”的气场。

艾玛・沃森对于自己的未来表示“21岁之前我对自己的人生没有掌控权,我像是活在一个由爱和契约条款构建的肥皂泡里,他们在人海里找到我,然后把我包裹起来,好在这一切都结束了,是时候让我戳破那个泡泡!”如果你也同艾玛・沃森一样,签下合约,10年不许更换发型、不许烫发染发、不许打耳洞、不许文身、不许暴肥暴瘦……或许你在解除拘束那一天,奔去理发店的速度比艾玛・沃森还要快。

她中断了布朗大学的英国历史系的学业,申请休学一年,以完成两部电影《我与梦露的一周》以及《壁花小姐》。“我选择了自己觉得比较重要的任务先完成。”她还设计了一条属于自己的服装品牌线,利用全天然有机材料制作服装,每天学习裁剪和设计。解开“魔法禁令”的艾玛还没有错过恋爱的机会,她在《壁花小姐》中的搭档杰伊・巴里摩尔在最恰当的时机进入她饥渴的心房。“我喜欢这种热情洋溢,完全一边倒的爱情。是的,这个年代很少有我这个年纪的女孩相信所谓的浪漫,但我就是那么无可救药地迷恋小说书里的老调调情怀。”