爱尔兰脱离英国

爱尔兰脱离英国

【范文精选】爱尔兰脱离英国

【范文大全】爱尔兰脱离英国

【专家解析】爱尔兰脱离英国

【优秀范文】爱尔兰脱离英国

范文一:英国公投脱欧,爱尔兰护照火速上位“黄金护照”!

英国公投脱欧,爱尔兰护照火速上位“黄金护照”!

1、英国公投脱欧一周内,谷歌搜索显示更令人惊叹:短短一周内,“爱尔兰护照申请条件”的搜索次数激增800%,“如何申请爱尔兰护照”增长250%!

2、“凯尔特之虎”高度发达国家/有着世界上最完善的福利制度!

3、英国的后花园/欧洲的硅谷/世界最适宜养老国家之一!

4、英爱两国短期签证互免协议/英爱一体化独具政策优势!

5、企业税欧洲最低/爱尔兰都柏林有望替代英国伦敦成为新的欧洲金融中心

6、欧盟欧元区内唯一的英语国家/世界六大英语移民国家之一!

7、持爱尔兰护照去英国读书,享欧盟学生待遇!

8、教育体系欧洲排名第一/世界排名第四!

9、护照便利度排名世界第四,免签171个国家!

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范文二:爱尔兰:禁止离婚的国家

M O #RANW OM EN .

. . . . .. .. . ... . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . ... .. . . . . ., , , , . . . .. .. . .. . .. .  ,

ti l - El ll  ̄ t

心想

让光将阳她的衣服褪晒,色科斯  里塔的子辩儿说 解 : 翻过来“晒会晾  衣服变形。”让夫 二人妻争不吵停 ,不要

我及是劝时,解 俩就会他起来打  。 晚上, 子偷偷告儿我, 叫我不要诉

其增使。重

婚的家国同,不尔爱人兰以度的高智

( 自摘 大《公》报)

创,了造一种兼顾传和统自 的由  婚姻度。男女双制在方婚结时,可 以协 商

姻婚系关的限,期 从 年1到 0 10年   不等在。尔爱兰理办结登婚记费用也的

管再家的他事了 因为,斯塔科 的里儿 子和 儿正媳 在闹离婚。还 有天就5  决是他定们 能 不能离 时候的。  我疑  惑不解地 问 : “ 由谁决定?由法是 院

? 吗”

因婚期长的而不同短如果婚。期 为1

, 年要需2 0 0 英镑 0, 相于人当民币 2 万多元。  但果结如期婚是 限 100 ,年  那

登记费用仅 么 O5 便 ( 士O 5.英 镑 ),  也 就是说 婚期越长,,费 越低。用

儿子说

: “不是, 由是袋决鼠。定等

天你5就道了知。 ”  我迫及待地不等第着 5的到  天来

爱尔在还兰一有耐人寻件味的

事, 婚期不情同,结 证婚也不书一样

。婚期为1 年 的新人,得的到厚是 如百科全 书般两的本大结婚书证翻。

,天村全人都的聚到集了科斯

塔里 家门前 ,村长未也。科斯塔里了家

开一看 ,里逐面条逐项举列了女双男

的方项权各义利,以务及所应承当担

门摆前着一桌张 ,桌子上放子一着 台

子秤电上。午1 0 点 ,整 斯塔科的里儿

任责小。清洁到修理大,到育生教

爱 尔兰:

育, 无 巨事细, 面面 俱到, 可谓一本完

、 子儿各媳自着抱一袋鼠只出了来 科。 斯

里的儿塔将子 袋交鼠到长手上村 ,  村将长鼠袋放在秤上一量称,报 重 出量

2:4斤 ;着接科塔里斯儿媳的袋将  鼠交到村 长上手村,长袋鼠放将在秤上

的家善相处条庭。例婚为期 0 01年 的

禁止

婚 离 帕国 家◎文

/高 荣伟

尔兰爱的法规律定,男女结 时婚  需在教里互相承堂 诺: “只有死 亡让 我

新人

, 到得结婚的书只证是一张条纸,  面上写市首着法官的席福语祝 :“ 尊

敬先的生 太太、 :您否知是道 , 您的左

对手右 、手 右腿 左腿 、对

左 眼对 右眼、 右

称量,  报出重:量 23 斤然后。村高 长 婚怎么由离量袋称的重量决鼠

定7呢儿告诉子, 这我赫是卡尔小镇尔多

对脑脑左, 究应竟承该担怎起的样  任和义务?其实它们责本来是一个整就 体, 只 因为此的存彼在而存 在 因为,彼 此的 快而快乐乐。 下”面印一行着大   写字的: “ 母祝你白们到老头。 ”  随着来外民的逐移渐增,以多及 爱尔兰人

对宗教念观的  逐渐变化 , 人  对于们取离消禁令婚呼的声来越  越高 。终于,在 919 6年, 过全民投经票颁

宣声:布“ 不准离 。”婚

们分开” 。无何种原因离婚论 (使即  配去偶世不例外也), 被视为违都背誓  言不被而许。允个规这有着定历史和 文

的原因化。

年传下流来的惯,习当妻二夫人要 离

时婚由,长村交给们每他人只一等  同重量的鼠,让袋妻夫人回家去二养喂

在尔爱兰 大,有约9 2 % 人信的 仰天主 教 在天,主的教教义, 里离是一婚 种 罪恶行的为这,最是宪初规法禁定 止离 婚一个的要原主因这。一律法规

定导 了很多致尔兰人习惯同爱而居不

个月 , 一个月后当再称众 , 量提离出

一方的袋鼠必须的比另一方 重 ,否

则不离婚能科斯。塔里的家离婚E是b

布的爱 兰宪法第 尔 5次修正案1中 删 ,

儿媳提出来 , 的现在的她袋轻 鼠 斤1,  所以

不能离。婚  后来我 才解了,到袋是鼠尔卡  赫尔镇小们人中的心图 腾,妻夫离也分 要 先尊重图腾由袋鼠重量。决定是

否结婚,很 老人都多是际实夫 , 一辈子  妻生在活起,一但法律在从来上有注没 册 婚结爱。兰尔的婚率是结全球低

的,最 现的爱尔兰人代不奉无行晚 ,婚 并

除了止离婚禁条的,并补款规定充 了  法定除解姻关系婚条的件。不离婚过

过程的其漫极,长最 要少过 5经年 ,  并且 在已去过 5年中,夫妻居的时间分 必须累 积达到4 ;年 除此之外 还必,

须对婚姻大事格外慎重

,已而婚夫妻通

离还有~个婚好,处可看以出妻二

夫人是真的否到非了分道镳扬可的不

地常也会亲相爱,相 老终生。一

除爱尔了,兰菲律 、 宾耳他、马 巴

圭、安道拉和尔马圣诺 5 力国个家

的通过法院的裁决

。 而然资料显示,有自  从许允离的 婚 0多年1来 ,尔爱兰全国  提

交的离申婚请不到也1   0 0 个。 0

步  ,因为如果一方不想离另 婚, (他她 )  必然在会那个一月精中心喂袋 养鼠,

法律

样同不准离。但与婚其禁止离

(他 丽娟摘自赵 《百

科知识 )》( 责 编 冰)蓝

》 > ]7

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范文三:禁止离婚的国家:爱尔兰

令人匪夷所思的是,在这个世界上,竟然还有禁止离婚的国家,这个国家就是爱尔兰。

在1937年爱尔兰共和国成立之初的宪法中,就明确规定“任何法律都不得允许婚姻关系的解除”,也就是我们所说的禁止离婚。爱尔兰的法律规定,男女结婚时需在教堂里互相承诺:“只有死亡让我们分开。”

无论何种原因离婚(即使配偶去世也不例外),都被视为违背誓言而不被允许。在爱尔兰,这个规定有着历史和文化的原因。

在爱尔兰大约有92%的人信仰天主教,在天主教的教义里,离婚是一种罪恶的行为,这是最初宪法规定禁止离婚的一个主要原因。这一法律规定导致了很多爱尔兰人习惯同居不结婚,很多老人都是实际夫妻,生活在一起一辈子,但在法律上从来没有注册结婚,因为,一旦结婚就意味着不能再分开。爱尔兰的结婚率是全球最低的,现代的爱尔兰人无不奉行晚婚,并对婚姻大事格外慎重,生怕一失足成千古恨,而已婚夫妻通常也会相亲相爱,终老一生。

除了爱尔兰,世界上还有其他一些国家也不许离婚,如菲律宾、马耳他、巴拉圭、安道尔和圣马力诺5个国家的法律同样不准离婚。

与其他禁止离婚的国家不同,爱尔兰人以高度的智慧,创造了一种兼顾传统和自由的婚姻制度。男女双方在结婚时,可以协商婚姻关系的期限,从1年到100年不等。在爱尔兰办理结婚登记的费用也因婚期的长短而不同。如果婚期为1年,需要2000英镑,相当于人民币2万多元。但如果结婚期限是100年,那么登记费用仅50便士(0.5英镑),也就是说,婚期越长,费用越低。

在爱尔兰,还有一件耐人寻味的事情,婚期不同,结婚证书也不一样。

婚期为1年的新人,得到的是厚如百科全书般的两大本结婚证书。翻开一看,里面逐条逐项列举了男女双方的各项权利义务,以及所应当承担的责任。小到清洁修理,大到生育教育,事无巨细,面面俱到,可谓一本完善的家庭相处条例。婚期为100年的新人,得到的结婚证书只是一张纸条,上面写着市首席法官的祝福语:尊敬的先生、太太:您是否知道,您的左手对右手,右腿对左腿,左眼对右眼,右脑对左脑究竟应该承担起怎样的责任和义务?其实它们本来就是一个整体,只因为彼此的存在而存在,因为彼此的快乐而快乐。下面印着一行大写的字母:祝你们白头到老。

随着外来移民的逐渐增多,以及爱尔兰人对宗教观念的逐渐变化,人们对于取消离婚禁令的呼声越来越高。终于,在1996年,经过全民投票颁布的爱尔兰宪法第15次修正案中,删除了禁止离婚的条款,并补充规定了法定解除婚姻关系的条件。不过,离婚的过程极其漫长,最少要经过5年,并且在已过去5年中夫妻分居的时间必须累积达到4年;除此之外,还必须通过法院的裁决。然而,有资料显示,自从允许离婚的10多年来,爱尔兰全国提交的离婚申请也不到1000个。

(摘自《百科知识》2014年第14期)

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范文四:北爱尔兰(英)

Overview:

Northern Ireland is known as the green kingdom under the jurisdiction of the British Government, the capital of Belfast. Here, graceful natural landscapes, the air is fresh, and the vast grasslands and countless mountains of Northern Ireland lie, outlining Northern Ireland’s unique “green” the main line of natural landscape. Along the northern coast of Northern Ireland, a busy harbor and castles which has hundreds of years of history intersect, and the modern life and history culture coexist here in harmony.

Northern Irish is friendly and criminal crime rate is the lowest in the whole United Kingdom. The local music, dance and beautiful natural scenery and rich ancient culture express the Northern Ireland's unique exotic custom to make the city which decorates in the green pastures has become a good place to go sightseeing.

Food:

Northern Ireland family diet with beef and potatoes, vegetables, bread is the staple food. The cooking method of potatoes is rich,, and the cooking methods of vegetables is boiled. Britain's most famous food — fish and chips, is also the most representative food in Northern Ireland. In many local fast food restaurants or street vendors, you can eat a variety of delicious food cooked with potatoes.

In Belfast there are many restaurants of different countries’ styles, among

which the most is Chinese style’s dining-room, perhaps because the Chinese are Northern Ireland's biggest floating population! In recent years, due to the increase of the foreign residents, great changes in the diet have taken place. On the based of the traditional diets, it brought in the dietary patterns of France, Italy and other countries.

At the mere mention of whisky, people will naturally think of Scotland, however, you must never imagine that the world’s first registered trademark of the whiskey brewing plants in the territory of Northern Ireland, called Bush Mill. In addition, the "Guinness" is a kind of bitter black beer, as created by the Guinness family, and is proud of the Irish wines. This beer is brewed from charred wheat, and is said to great nutritional value, in hospital frail patients may use this as a tonic. Shopping:

Wherever you walk in Ireland can see many traditional handicrafts that make you a lifetime. In Fermanagh you can go to Belleek pottery factory to appreciate and buy Belleek manual exquisite products. Before leaving, don't forget to buy a bodhrn home to learning knock the drum. If you want to enjoy Waterford, be sure to visit Waterford crystal glass factory of local. Northern Ireland is famous for its flax; you can go to the Lisburn in the Irish Linen center (Irish Linen Centre) to buy. Throughout the handicraft inn factory or shops you can find a tweed Nebuchadnezzar sweater made of wool by hand.

Accommodation: In Northern Ireland there are many kinds of different types of accommodation site to choose from. You can enjoy the traditional local life in Ireland in the rural farms and fields. Or choose a cheap youth hostels, camping trailers, tent shelter in parks and at your own expense. In addition, there are luxurious castle, the new hotel and family housing. Boarding dormitory (Guesthouses) and the bed and breakfast of B&B style accommodation for you to provide a closer service.

Recreation:

In the cultural life, the traditional Irish music and dance loved by people around the world. Music melody is accompanied by a road trip. You will meet outgoing gentle notes alto horn performer in the streets. In Irish pubs and clubs, you will appreciate modern dance, or Irish traditional melody.

The opera house in Belfast, the outstanding composer’s show allows you to enjoy the romantic ambience. In very modern waterfront hall, as well as antique Grand Theater and the Ulster Hall, the annual dance drama staged all kinds of music. Held in November each year, "the Belfast Arts Festival" is the one of the few large-scale arts festival in United Kingdom, making people's cultural life colorful.

Transportation:

Airlines

There are three airports in Northern Ireland: Belfast International airport, Belfast city airport and the City of Derry airport. The traffic is very convenient.

Railway

Railways often have price promotions, for example ,3 pounds will render a chance for you to go anywhere in Northern Ireland with no time restriction on Sunday。Somehow in some certain time and route, two guys can buy just one ticket as long as they are in company and guarantee they would come back together that day. However, the board time will change in some specific period of time. So please take more attention. Water transportation

In Northern Ireland there are many ferry stations, they are very convenient for people's connection between the islands.

The best travel time:

Northern Ireland belongs to the temperate maritime climate, mild climate, moderate rainfall, it is located in high latitudes, summer is cool, and winter is more mild and humid (summer is about 18 ~25 ° c, winter is about 2~5 ° c). Because of this wet weather in Northern Ireland, people created a world of emeralds; bring various high-quality dairy products to the children's survival.

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范文五:英国、爱尔兰火车通票

英国、爱尔兰火车通票

1、适用国家

英国、爱尔兰

2、乘客限制

英国,爱尔兰以外长期居民(居住六个月以上者),可购买及使用此种通票。

3、购票及使用规定

(1) 美元报价,人民币支付,汇率将参考相关银行牌价,以出票之日我机构告之为准

(2) 5岁以下不占座儿童免费,5-16岁儿童享受半价

(3) 19 点规则:如持活期通票乘坐 19 点以后出发的直达过夜火车,在通票日期栏内填写第二天日期(第二天必须在有效期内),且第二天可继续有效使用;

(4) 通票持有者可以享有通票覆盖国家提供的其他签约的各类优惠旅游产品

(5) 相关购票、退票、改票等相关事宜,请以出票机构最终告之为准

(6) 本机构完全享有对于此产品及其销售的定义、性质、通途、规则的解释权

(7) 此报价为最终含税价格,购票时需另外支付20人民币/人/张出票费

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范文六:爱尔兰一个禁止离婚的国家却很感动

爱尔兰 一个禁止离婚的国家 却很感动!

爱尔兰是全世界结婚率最低的国家,作为一个信奉天主教的国度,这个国家是禁止离婚的。很多适逢婚龄的男男女女大都选择观望,迟迟不去婚姻登记部门办理手续。所以,在爱尔兰流行不婚和晚婚。但一对中国夫妻在爱尔兰的结婚经历,却让我们感受到了爱尔兰这个国家对婚姻的完美诠释。

林东在爱尔兰国立都柏林大学奎恩商学院取得硕士学位后,又工作了两年,方才办理下来了我的签证手续。

等到我终于获准可居留后,距离当初他前往爱尔兰已是7年。我和林东都明白结婚意味“终身监禁”,不管将来是否幸福,都不得不搭进去一辈子。可我和林东都已经等不及了,再拖上几年,到时候有了孩子是像儿子还是像孙子?不行,得马上结婚。

和林东手牵手走进了笼罩着神秘色彩的都柏林市go-vern-ment机关办公室大厅。顺着箭头指示找到负责办理结婚手续的“入口处”,迎面是一个硕大的液晶显示屏,上面对结婚须知等注意事项作了详细的说明:本处只办理结婚登记手续不办理离婚手续,但这并不意味着每个爱尔兰公民只能和自己唯一的配偶厮守一生,因为本国实行期限婚姻制,男女双方在缔结婚约时可根据多方面因素综合考虑,协商决定婚姻关系的期限,婚姻期限从1年到100年。在本处登记备案后生效,期限届满,婚姻关系即告终止,双方当事人如有继续共同生活的愿望,可办理延续登记,延续婚姻关系„„

这完全出乎了我们的意料,在决定结婚前,我们谁都没有事先来入口处询问过,身边的朋友也没有提醒我们爱尔兰实行的是期限婚姻——我俩呆立在那里,有点像两个被宣告了死刑的囚犯忽然获悉可以无罪释放的解脱。

这婚还结不结?当然结。那么,结多久?这是个问题。入口处的“生意”格外冷清,除了我们俩再没有别的光顾者。工作人员看我们俩变脸一样地转换表情,也不催我们,示意我们自己去触摸屏前面商量选择。

然后就要求我们双方协商选择婚姻期限,可选择1年——100年不同的期限,并且显示出一行红色的小字:“系统说明:由于办理婚姻延续的费用较高,请选择你认为最为适合的婚姻期限。”我和林东有点发懵,本来就是横下心豁出去这一辈子了的,可面对自己自由选择期限的时候,我俩那点信心又都动摇了。林东小声道:“要不,我们先结1年试试?”心里有点不爽,恋爱10年了临到结婚了才选1年?林东看我面色不善,赶紧补充:“我估摸着这玩意按年收费,时间越长越贵,大不了明年再来续嘛„”

好像想想也不错,去超市买点心还能试吃呢。不就是1年么,万一不合适,对双方都好。我俩对视了一下,终于一起选择了最短的1年期。系统立即予以确认:“双方婚姻关系成立,婚姻期限1年。”接下来,进入结婚登记我们最关心的最后一个程序,系统显示出办理1年期限婚姻登记所需要缴纳的费用——“结婚证书工本费 2000镑!”

我们都有一种想砸了这台机器的冲动,2000镑,折合人民币26000多元,抢钱呀!这几乎相当于我们俩一个月收入的总和了。虽然已经被提示过费用不菲,但这个价码还是实在太过分了。很不情愿地刷了信用卡,于是,两本如同法典般厚的结婚证书便摆在了我们面前

有没有搞错?结婚证而已,需要搞得像《辞海》这样厚吗?我拿起一本打开来细看,第一页上这样写道:“为保证双方当事人适当履行婚约,顺利完成l年期婚姻期限,特此明确双方在婚姻关系存续期间的权利义务。”下面则分十二编、三百六十五章、两万一千九百款详细地规定了双方的权利义务,以及不履行或不完全履行义务所应承担的责任。

林东有点庆幸地对我说:“幸亏我们选择了1年期,如果选择100年期,结婚证书还不得车拉船载,那工本费至少得花上百万。”我们悻悻地回家,捧着沉重的结婚证书,嘴里咒骂着该死的入口处,也终于明白为什么尽管可以期限结婚,但爱尔兰的结婚率还是这么低了——这样的收费,有人心甘情愿结婚才怪。

虽然结婚证罗列了很多不按照结婚证履行义务将承担的不良后果,我和林东还是很快把这两本装潢精美的结婚证跟《圣经》摆在一块当了装饰品。只有偶尔两人发生争执,需要判别谁对谁错的时候,才会去翻翻结婚证作为“定罪”的依据。可最后的结果就是,“罪名”尚未定下来,我们已经一不小心发觉了对方更多与结婚证要求相悖的言行举止„„

完全不实用嘛!我俩下定决心摒弃了这两本结婚证,决定中为西用,领着爱尔兰的结婚证过中国式婚姻。这下就轻松了,谁也不吵吵什么权利义务责任后果了,按照做丈夫做妻子的本能行事,我累了他多做点,他太辛苦我多担待点,工作赚钱过日子,一年时间也没有什么吵吵闹闹,转眼就到了该续约的时候了。

打电话回国咨询民政部,结果很让我们沮丧,因为我俩都办理了移民手续,已经加入了爱尔兰国籍,因此不能在中国拿9块钱的结婚证。我们很肉痛地决定把打算买车的10000镑先用掉,先续个5年。

这次可就轻车熟路了,我发现触摸屏上有个费用查询按键,一时好奇就点击了一下,我倒想看看最高期限100年的结婚手续到底要多少钱。不可思议的事情发生了——100年期结婚证的工本费仅为50便士——0.5镑,折合人民币6块多钱。“这怎么可能,准是系统出了故障。”林东嘴上说着,右手按下了证书预览按钮。呈现在我们眼前的百年期结婚证书只是一页薄薄的粉红色纸片,上面写着这样几行文字:“尊敬的先生、太太:我不知道我的左手对右手、右腿对左腿、左眼对右眼、右脑对左脑究竟应该享有怎样的权利,究竟应该承担怎样的义务。其实他们本就是一个整体,因彼此的存在而存在,因彼此的快乐而快乐。最后,让这张粉红色的小纸带去我对你们百年婚姻的美好祝愿!祝你们幸福!都柏林首席法官:吉米.里莫”

我看着林东:“敢选不?”林东也盯着我:“你决定了吗?这一下按下去,

咱俩可就真成了一根绳子上的蚂蚱,再也甭想分开了!”我点点头,有点舍生取义的慷慨:“我豁出去了,这辈子就跟定你了,将来你别让我为了现在的决定后悔。”林东笑了,拉着我的手,一起点下了“100年”那个选项。

揣着那张薄薄的粉红色纸片,我和林东直奔车市买了辆全新的BMW1系轿车,驰骋在都柏林的街头,我忽然觉得开车的林东从未像现在这般帅气过——这辈子,他将是我唯一的爱人,我们已经孤注一掷没有了退路,可婚姻这东西,往往也只有在破釜沉舟的时候,才能绽放出最灿烂的光辉——两个人去结婚,有谁不是打算厮守终身白头偕老的呢?

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范文七:爱尔兰一个禁止离婚的国家

爱尔兰:一个禁止离婚的国家

爱尔兰是全世界结婚率最低的国家,作为一个信奉天主教的国度,这个国家是禁止离婚的。很多适逢婚龄的男男女女大都选择观望,迟迟不去婚姻登记部门办理手续。所以,在爱尔兰流行不婚和晚婚。但一对中国夫妻在爱尔兰的结婚经历,却让我们感受到了爱尔兰这个国家对婚姻的完美诠释。

林东在爱尔兰国立都柏林大学奎恩商学院取得硕士学位后,又工作了两年,方才办理下来了我的签证手续。

等到我终于获准可居留后,距离当初他前往爱尔兰已是7年。我和林东都明白结婚意味“终身监禁”,不管将来是否幸福,都不得不搭进去一辈子。可我和林东都已经等不及了,再拖上几年,到时候有了孩子是像儿子还是像孙子?不行,得马上结婚。

和林东手牵手走进了笼罩着神秘色彩的都柏林市政府机关办公室大厅。顺着箭头指示找到负责办理结婚手续的“入口处”,迎面是一个硕大的液晶显示屏,上面对结婚须知等注意事项作了详细的说明:本处只办理结婚登记手续不办理离婚手续,但这并不意味着每个爱尔兰公民只能和自己唯一的配偶厮守一生,因为本国实行期限婚姻制,男女双方在缔结婚约时可根据多方面因素综合考虑,协商决定婚姻关系的期限,婚姻期限从1年到100年。在本处登记备案后生效,期限届满,婚姻关系即告终止,双方当事人如有继续共同生活的愿望,可办理延续登记,延续婚姻关系……

这完全出乎了我们的意料,在决定结婚前,我们谁都没有事先来入口处询问过,身边的朋友也没有提醒我们爱尔兰实行的是期限婚姻——我俩呆立在那里,有点像两个被宣告了死刑的囚犯忽然获悉可以无罪释放的解脱。

这婚还结不结?当然结。那么,结多久?这是个问题。入口处的“生意”格外冷清,除了我们俩再没有别的光顾者。工作人员看我们俩变脸一样地转换表情,也不催我们,示意我们自己去触摸屏前面商量选择。

然后就要求我们双方协商选择婚姻期限,可选择1年——100年不同的期限,并且显示出一行红色的小字:“系统说明:由于办理婚姻延续的费用较高,请选择你认为最为适合的婚姻期限。”我和林东有点发懵,本来就是横下心豁出去这一辈子了的,可面对自己自由选择期限的时候,我俩那点信心又都动摇了。林东小声道:“要不,我们先结1年试试?”心里有点不爽,恋爱10年了临到结婚了才选1年?林东看我面色不善,赶紧补充:“我估摸着这玩意按年收费,时间越长越贵,大不了明年再来续嘛…”

好像想想也不错,去超市买点心还能试吃

呢。不就是1年么,万一不合适,对双方都好。我俩对视了一下,终于一起选择了最短的1年期。系统立即予以确认:“双方婚姻关系成立,婚姻期限1年。”接下来,进入结婚登记我们最关心的最后一个程序,系统显示出办理1年期限婚姻登记所需要缴纳的费用——“结婚证书工本费 2000镑!”

我们都有一种想砸了这台机器的冲动,2000镑,折合人民币26000多元,抢钱呀!这几乎相当于我们俩一个月收入的总和了。虽然已经被提示过费用不菲,但这个价码还是实在太过分了。很不情愿地刷了信用卡,于是,两本如同法典般厚的结婚证书便摆在了我们面前

有没有搞错?结婚证而已,需要搞得像《辞海》这样厚吗?我拿起一本打开来细看,第一页上这样写道:“为保证双方当事人适当履行婚约,顺利完成l年期婚姻期限,特此明确双方在婚姻关系存续期间的权利义务。”下面则分十二编、三百六十五章、两万一千九百款详细地规定了双方的权利义务,以及不履行或不完全履行义务所应承担的责任。

林东有点庆幸地对我说:“幸亏我们选择了1年期,如果选择100年期,结婚证书还不得车拉船载,那工本费至少得花上百万。”我们悻悻地回家,捧着沉重的结婚证书,嘴里咒骂着该死的入口处,也终于明白为什么尽管可以期限结婚,但爱尔兰的结婚率还是这么低了——这样的收费,有人心甘情愿结婚才怪。

虽然结婚证罗列了很多不按照结婚证履行义务将承担的不良后果,我和林东还是很快把这两本装潢精美的结婚证跟《圣经》摆在一块当了装饰品。只有偶尔两人发生争执,需要判别谁对谁错的时候,才会去翻翻结婚证作为“定罪”的依据。可最后的结果就是,“罪名”尚未定下来,我们已经一不小心发觉了对方更多与结婚证要求相悖的言行举止……

完全不实用嘛!我俩下定决心摒弃了这两本结婚证,决定中为西用,领着爱尔兰的结婚证过中国式婚姻。这下就轻松了,谁也不吵吵什么权利义务责任后果了,按照做丈夫做妻子的本能行事,我累了他多做点,他太辛苦我多担待点,工作赚钱过日子,一年时间也没有什么吵吵闹闹,转眼就到了该续约的时候了。

打电话回国咨询民政部,结果很让我们沮丧,因为我俩都办理了移民手续,已经加入了爱尔兰国籍,因此不能在中国拿9块钱的结婚证。我们很肉痛地决定把打算买车的10000镑先用掉,先续个5年。

这次可就轻车熟路了,我发现触摸屏上有个费用查询按键,一时好奇就点击了一下,我倒想看看最高期限100年的结婚手续到底要多少钱。不可思议的事情发生了

——100年期结婚证的工本费仅为50便士——0.5镑,折合人民币6块多钱。“这怎么可能,准是系统出了故障。”林东嘴上说着,右手按下了证书预览按钮。呈现在我们眼前的百年期结婚证书只是一页薄薄的粉红色纸片,上面写着这样几行文字:“尊敬的先生、太太:我不知道我的左手对右手、右腿对左腿、左眼对右眼、右脑对左脑究竟应该享有怎样的权利,究竟应该承担怎样的义务。其实他们本就是一个整体,因彼此的存在而存在,因彼此的快乐而快乐。最后,让这张粉红色的小纸带去我对你们百年婚姻的美好祝愿!祝你们幸福!都柏林首席法官:吉米.里莫”

我看着林东:“敢选不?”林东也盯着我:“你决定了吗?这一下按下去,咱俩可就真成了一根绳子上的蚂蚱,再也甭想分开了!”我点点头,有点舍生取义的慷慨:“我豁出去了,这辈子就跟定你了,将来你别让我为了现在的决定后悔。”林东笑了,拉着我的手,一起点下了“100年”那个选项。

揣着那张薄薄的粉红色纸片,我和林东直奔车市买了辆全新的BMW1系轿车,驰骋在都柏林的街头,我忽然觉得开车的林东从未像现在这般帅气过——这辈子,他将是我唯一的爱人,我们已经孤注一掷没有了退路,可婚姻这东西,往往也只有在破釜沉舟的时候,才能绽放出最灿烂的光辉——两个人去结婚,有谁不是打算厮守终身白头偕老的呢?

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范文八:趣味英语:不能离婚!揭秘爱尔兰的“爱情合约”

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趣味英语:不能离婚!:揭秘爱尔兰的

爱尔兰是信奉天主教的国家,禁止离婚。所以,两人结婚时必须选择婚姻关系的期限——1年至100年。这种婚姻法的高明之处在于,婚姻的期限恰好与结婚的费用成反比。如果你选择了1年期限,将支付高达2000英镑的费用并获得如辞典般厚厚的权利义务说明;如果你选择了100年,那么恭喜你,你只需要支付工本费0.5英镑,和短短的却让所有女人感动的一段话:“我不知道我的左手对右手、右腿对左腿、左眼对右眼、右脑对左脑究竟应该享有怎样的权利,究竟应该承担怎样的义务。其实它们本就是一个整体,因彼此的存在而存在,因彼此的快乐而快乐。最后,让这张粉红色的小纸带去我对你们百年婚姻的美好祝愿!祝你们幸福!”

希望世间男女,都能像爱尔兰人一样去结婚,好好地谨慎地相爱,并选择百年的期限来用心地守护身边的那个人。

When I was having a chit-chat with my colleague, she asked me all of a sudden, “How did your husband propose to you at that time? Was it romantic?” I was numbed by her words for a while, and then burst into laughter, “My husband is a bit rigid, so do you think his proposal would be romantic?” Though I said in that way, I felt very sweet in heart when thinking of my husband’s proposing to me. To be honest, his proposal was actually by no means romantic without flowers, diamond ring and any other 洛基英语是中国英语培训市场上的一朵奇葩,是全球已被验证的东方人英语学习的最佳模式。洛基英

surprise. It was even could not be called “marriage proposal”。

At that time, he gave me a book about Ireland, which, now I am thinking was a long-established plan. At the weekend when I finished the book, he came to me and asked me whether I had finished the book. Seeing me nod my head, he felt very pleased and said to me in a low but happy voice, “If you like, we can get married in an Irish way!”

At that time, my heart was totally convinced by the romantic and sacred law of marriage in Ireland. The book told me that Ireland believes in Catholicism and

prohibited divorce. Therefore, when a couple get married, they are supposed to choose the time of their marriage which ranges from 1 year to 100 years. The most impressive of this law of marriage lies in the inverse relationship between the time of marriage and the fees to be charged. If you choose 1 year for your marriage, you shall pay as much as 2, 000 sterling pounds plus receiving a dictionary-thick reference of rights and

responsibilities. But if you choose 100 years, then you are very lucky and only need to pay 0.5 pound for the fees and receive a short but heart-touching note in all women’s eyes: “I have no idea the clear rights and responsibilities for my left hand to my right hand, my right leg to my left leg, my left eye to my right eye and my right sphere of brain to the left. Actually, they are an integrated whole and live by each other and cheer for each other. Finally, I would like this pink note to convey my best wishes to your 洛基英语是中国英语培训市场上的一朵奇葩,是全球已被验证的东方人英语学习的最佳模式。洛基英

one-hundred-year marriage! May you live happily all your lives!”

I still remember at that time that I said to my husband, “Ok, so sir, please choose the time you expect our marriage to last!” He said happily, “I even do not bother to think about it and would definitely choose 100 years because it is highly

money-saving!”

Later, I married him, a man who would like to stay with me for 100 years. Although we are not bound by the law of marriage in Ireland, we have cherished our vow to discipline ourselves all the time. We have married like Irish people and look on our marriage as a life-long commitment and spare no effort to nourish it hand in hand as we are gradually aging together。

I also sincerely hope that every pair of lovers in the world can get married like Irish people and love and protect each other whole-heartedly by committing themselves to a 100-year marriage。

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范文九:英文化-爱尔兰

Unit 11 Land, People and History (Ireland)

(爱尔兰的人文、地理和历史)

一、本单元重点内容

1. The difference between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

(北爱尔兰与爱尔兰共和国的区别)

2. Unique geographic features of Ireland (爱尔兰独特的地理特征)

3. The natural environment (自然环境)

4. Temperate climate (温带气候)

5. The expansion of tourist industry (旅游业的扩张)

6. Intensive farming (精耕细作)

7. Emigration (移民出境)

8. The Great Famine of 1845—1848 (1845-1848年的“大饥荒”)

9. The Celtic Tiger (凯尔特老虎)

10. The English Colonisation of Ireland (英国人对爱尔兰的殖民统治)

11. A warrior culture and history (尚武文化和历史)

12. Campaigns for Home Rule (自治运动)

13. Irish Independence in 1921 (1921年爱尔兰的独立)

二、本单元重、难点辅导

1. The difference between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

(北爱尔兰与爱尔兰共和国的区别)

1) Northern Ireland is a province of the UK, while the Republic of Ireland is an independent nation in its own right. 北爱尔兰是英国的一个省,共和国是一个独立的国家。

2) The area covering the Republic of Ireland is 5 times of that of Northern Ireland.

•爱尔兰共和国的面积是北爱的5倍

3) Most of the people in Northern Ireland are Protestants while the majority of the people in the Republic are Catholics. 大多数爱尔兰共和国的人是天主教徒。

2. Unique geographic features of Ireland (爱尔兰独特的地理特征)

1) Ireland is situated off the northwest coast of Great Britain, and Scotland is across the narrow strait of water(与苏格兰一水之隔).

2) In terms of geographical elevations, the island of Ireland resembles a tea saucer, with a large central lowland comprised of limestone (从地表上来看,爱尔兰像一个茶盘,中间是大片的石灰石低地).

3. The natural environment (自然环境)

1) Ireland is an intense green, or rather mixture of greens, which changes little between summer and winter; the grasslands flourish in all seasons. 爱尔兰有着大片大片的绿色草场,而且四季不变。

2) Ireland has a smaller range of native flora and fauna than elsewhere in Europe.

与欧洲其它地方相比,爱尔兰当地的动植物种类较少。

4. Temperate climate(温带气候)

1) Ireland is not very hot during summer, nor is it very cold in winter.

2) Snow and ice are rare.

3) Ireland is almost always damp.

5. Economy

1) The expansion of tourist industry (旅游业的扩张)

① Over-development of many resorts has led to a despoliation of many landscapes. 许多风景区的过度开发使环境受到破坏。

② The expansion of the tourist industry is particularly dangerous for the environment. 旅游业的发展对环境的破坏尤为危险

2) Intensive farming (精耕细作)

New methods of intensive farming have led to pollution of springs and lakes.

3) The Celtic Tiger (凯尔特虎,“虎虎有生气的爱尔兰”经济)

The economy of Ireland has been booming in recent years and thus it has become the “Celtic Tiger.”由于爱尔兰的经济在加入欧盟之后持续高速增长,又由于爱尔兰人的祖先为凯尔特人,故被称为“凯尔特虎”,正如新加坡、香港、台湾与韩国等国家和地区在经济持续高速增长时期被称为“小龙”

6. Emigration (移民出境)

Emigration took place before the Great Famine, mostly from the northern part of Ireland. The emigrants went to the New World (Canada and America) to seek better economic position.

7. The Great Famine of 1845—1848 (1845-1848年的“大饥荒”)

The Great Famine took place from 1845—1848 when successive potato crops failed and many people of Ireland starved to death, or died of the diseases which preyed on malnutrition Many left the country for the New World. The Great Famine became a watershed in Irish history, not merely because there was mass starvation and emigration, but also because the British government appeared to be indifferent to the fate of the poorest people in its nearest colony. Naturally this period is characterized by campaigns for national independence and land reform.1845年至1848年,爱尔兰重要农作物马铃薯连年受灾减产,许多人被饿死,或死于营养不良造成的疾病。许多人离开这里前往新大陆。“大饥荒”是爱尔兰历史上的分水岭事件,不仅是因为有大量的人饿死和大规模的移民, 还因为 英国政府似乎对离它最近的殖民地的穷苦百姓的命运毫不关心。很自然地,这一段时期,爱尔兰人纷纷掀起了民族独立运动和土地改革的运动。

Result: the immediate result of the Great Famine was a decimation of the population(人口锐减), so the Republic of Ireland is a young country with more than half of the people under the age of 25. 大饥荒的直接后果是人口大量减少,因此爱尔兰共和国是一个年轻的国家,半数以上的人在25

8. The Celtic and English Colonisation of Ireland (英国人对爱尔兰的殖民统治)

1) Ireland has been invaded by Celts, Christians, Vikings, Normans and English. Celtic invaders may have come to Ireland as early as the 6th century BC. Celts were a warrior culture (尚武文化), making swift attacks in horse-drawn chariots (马拉战车). Much like the Homeric warriors in the Iliad, they had their own saga. Celts’ language survived through history and Irish is the first official language of the Republic of Ireland.

•凯尔特人尚武、爱好冒险, 有着许多充满幻想的古老传奇 , 坐着马拉的战车快速对敌人发起进攻. 就象古希腊荷马史诗《伊利亚特》中的勇士一样,他们也有自己的英雄传奇。

•凯尔特人的语言和文化幸存下来了,爱尔兰的第一官方语言是爱尔兰语.

2) English invasion of Ireland: in 1541, Henry VIII declared himself king of Ireland---the first English monarch to do so. 英格兰人入侵爱尔兰: •1541年,亨利8世宣称自己是爱尔兰的国王,这是英格兰国王中第一个这么做的。

3) Queen Elizabeth I’s army defeated the Irish at the Battle of Kinsale in 1601. For the first time, the entire island was controlled by a strong English central government.

•1601年女王伊丽莎白一世的军队打败了爱尔兰人。整个爱尔兰岛第一次由强大的英格兰中央政府统一管理。

4) In 1782, the Irish parliament was granted independence.

•由于爱尔兰人的不断争取,

1782年,爱尔兰议会获得立法自主权。(然而,该议会仅仅代表少数盎格鲁-爱尔兰特权阶层,

5) After the defeat of the 1798 rebellion, the London government took drastic action to curtain any notions of Irish independence. 1798年反抗被镇压后,伦敦政府采取了强硬措施压制爱尔兰的独立运动

6) The Irish parliament was voted out of existence in 1800. 1800年,爱尔兰国会被取缔。(1801年,爱尔兰与大不列颠联合为一体。)

9. Campaigns for Home Rule (自治运动)

A constitutional movement seeking Home Rule was instituted up (提出) by Isaac Butt in 1870. The Home Rule Bill was finally passed in 1914.1870年,艾萨克 · 巴特提出地方自治的口号,于是掀起了一场宪政运动,号召建立在帝国制度内的爱尔兰国会 。自治法案最终于1914年得以通过。

10. Sinn Fein (新芬党)

Arthur Griffith developed a political party in the period of 1905-08 known as Sinn Fein---meaning “we ourselves” in the Irish language. The Sinn Fein policy was that Irish MPs should withdraw from Westminster and establish an independent parliament. Traditionally, Sinn Fein had close links with the Irish Republican brotherhood, a secret society struggling for national independence.亚瑟·格里菲斯于1905一-1908年期间创建的新芬党也想要建立一个独立的议会。

11. The Easter Rising of 1916 (1916年的复活节起义)

It was a rebellion by Irish nationalists against British rule on 24 April 1916 (Easter Monday). The Irish Volunteers, led by Patrick Pearse and the Irish Citizen Army, led by James Connolly, staged the uprising. The British crushed the rising within a week and executed its leaders. A wave of nationalist sentiment produced an electoral victory for Sinn Fein in 1918.1916年的复活节起义也是爱尔兰的一次独立运动, 起义也是以失败而告终。

12. Irish Independence in 1921 (1921年爱尔兰的独立)

In December, 1921 the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed, with the result that 26 counties gained independence as the new Irish Free State. Six counties in Ulster are known as Northern Ireland.

1921年12月,签订了“盎格鲁-爱尔兰”条约,南方的26个郡获得独立,形成新的爱尔兰自由邦,北方的6个郡被称为北爱,

Unit 14 Irish Culture: Language, Literature and Arts

爱尔兰的文化:语言,文学和艺术

一、本单元重点内容

1. Erse and the colonial policy (爱尔兰盖耳语和殖民政策)

2. Hiberno-English (爱尔兰英语)

3. Oral culture tradition (口头文化传统)

4. Folk heritage (民间传统)

5. Irish literature (爱尔兰的文学)

6. Nobel Prize winners for Literature (诺贝尔文学奖的获得者)

7. Irish music and dance (爱尔兰的音乐、舞蹈) and Riverdance (“河之舞”)

8. Popular sports in Ireland (爱尔兰流行的体育运动)and Hurling (爱尔兰式曲棍球)

9. Science and technology in Ireland (爱尔兰的科学技术)

10. The Irish identity in the world (爱尔兰人在世界上的身份特征)

二、本单元重、难点辅导

1. Erse and the colonial policy (爱尔兰盖耳语和殖民政策)

The Irish people spoke their own language, called Irish or Erse.

However, the English colonial policy brought much pressure to stop the Irish people speaking their own language and to learn standard English instead. Until the mid-19th century Irish was still spoken widely by the peasant classes. The death blow (致命打击) to the Irish language was the Great Famine of 1845-1849. In the late 19th century, an attempt was made to revive (复兴,恢复) the use of the Irish language among the middle and

professional classes. 爱尔兰人讲他们自己的语言,称爱尔兰语或厄尔斯语。然而,英国的殖民政策不断地施压,以阻止爱尔兰人讲他们自己的语言,而要求他们学标准英语。直到19世纪中期,爱尔兰语还被农民阶级广泛使用。1845-1848年的大饥荒对爱尔兰语带来了致命的打击. 19世纪末期,有人试图恢复爱尔兰语在中产阶级和职业阶层中的应用。After the first Irish national state was set up in 1922, a concerted, official attempt was made to make Irish once again the national language. And Irish was made compulsory subject in schools.

2. Hiberno-English (爱尔兰英语)

Despite such official pressures, the language that is spoken universally in the Republic of Ireland is a version of standard English known as Hiberno-English. 尽管有官方的这些压力,如今在爱尔兰广泛使用的语言是标准英语的另一版本,被称为“爱尔兰英语” 。

3. Oral culture tradition (口头文化传统)

Ireland is a culture which operates most obviously on an oral level. Almost inevitably, an Irish person will take an opportunity to talk even if pressed for time (时间紧迫). The basis for this is in the original peasant culture, which makes the transfer from an oral to a written culture only slowly in the late 19th century. But even among the most literate classes, great value is extended to the ability to talk spontaneously and with grace and force. Oral culture is one key to Ireland’s very effective business and diplomatic efforts. 爱尔兰是一个注重口头文化的国家,爱尔兰人会抓住每一个机会与人交谈,即使是时间紧迫也是如此. 口头文化传统起源于最早的农民文化,直到19世纪末期,这种口头文化才逐渐缓慢地向书面文化过渡。但是,即使是在受过最好教育的阶层,人们还是非常重视自然,优雅和有力的谈话能力. 爱尔兰的商业和外交努力都很有效,其中口头文化是一大关键原因。

4. Folk heritage (民间传统)

Ireland is a traditional culture which has derived from its rich folk heritage.

5. Irish literature (爱尔兰的文学)

In Ireland, writers and poets are honored most. Writers may publish in either the Irish or the English language. The first poem identified as “Irish” is the saga of the Tain, which was transmitted orally for centuries before it was written down(在爱尔兰,作家和诗人最受尊敬。作家可以用爱尔兰语,也可以用英语来出版。被认为是第一首爱尔兰语诗歌“泰恩”传奇,已经在口头上流传了几个世纪后才用文字记载下来).

Famous writers include Jonathan Swift乔纳森·斯威夫特 (1667-1745)(famous satire Gulliver’s Travels著名的讽刺作品《格列佛游记》1726), Laurence Sterne 劳伦斯·斯特恩(1713-1768) (English novel Tristram Shandy《项狄传》), playwright Richard Sheridan理查德·谢力丹(1751-1816) (The School for Scandal《丑闻学校》), playwright, poet and novelist Oscar Wilde 奥斯卡·王尔德(1856-1900) [play: The Importance of Being Earnest《认真的重要性》(1895), poetry, The Ballad of Reading Gaol《雷丁狱之歌》(1898) and novel The Picture of

Dorian Gray《道林·格雷的画像》] and novelist James Joyce詹姆斯·乔伊斯(1882-1941) (novels: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man《一个年轻艺术家的画像》and Ulysses《尤利西斯》)

6. Nobel Prize winners for Literature (诺贝尔文学奖的获得者)

The Republic of Ireland has been the home of 4 winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature: 爱尔兰共和国有4位诺贝尔文学奖得主。

1) the poets, W.B. Yeats (1865-1929) and 2) Seamus Heaney (1939-); 3) the playwrights, George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) and 4) Samuel Beckett(1906-1989) 这4位是诗人和剧作家叶芝,诗人西默斯·希尼;剧作家乔治·肖伯纳和塞缪尔·贝克特。

Bernard Shaw’s famous play Pygmalion《卖花女》has been adapted into a film My Fair Lady. 肖伯纳著名的戏剧卖花女曾经被改编成电影 《窈窕淑女》 Samuel is famous for his great absurdist play Waiting for Godot塞缪尔因他的荒诞派戏剧《等待戈多》而出名.

The works of James Joyce and Samuel Becket are self-consciously avant-garde, playing with different dialects and styles of English as if they were part of a game(乔伊斯以及贝克特的作品有自我意识的先锋派风格,运用不同的方言和文体,就像在玩游戏).

7. Irish music and dance (爱尔兰的音乐、舞蹈)

1) Riverdance (“河之舞”)

Riverdance is a very popular form of dancing based on Ireland's intricate folk dances which are rearranged and modernized and adapted onto current stage performance. Dancing is traditionally part of Irish culture. It is usually accompanied by the Irish pipe and fiddle. The music usually sounds fast and furious. Most of the action is from the waist down, with the arms held rigidly at the sides. 舞蹈是爱尔兰文化传统 的一部分。河之舞是一种非常流行于舞台的舞蹈,是由爱尔兰的极其复杂的民间舞蹈,经过重新编排和革新形成的。通常用爱尔兰风向和小提琴来伴奏。音乐通常听起来又快又疯狂。舞蹈的大多数动作都是腰部以下来完成,而胳膊僵硬地放在两侧。

2).The Irish pipe(爱尔兰风笛)

The Irish pipe is distinctive. Unlike the Scottish bagpipe(风笛), which is blown, the Irish pipe is played by holding the airbag (安全气袋) under the arm and pumping(抽吸) it with the elbow. In tone(音调), the Irish pipes are quieter and more musical than those of the Scots, which are employed as war-pipes(战笛). The Irish pipes are for private entertainment, and dancing.

爱尔兰风笛很独特,与苏格兰风笛不同,苏格兰风笛是用吹的,而爱尔兰风笛是表演者在胳膊肘下夹一个气囊,靠胳膊挤压气囊来给风笛供气. 从音调上来讲,爱尔兰风笛比苏格兰风笛更平和,更悦耳。苏格兰风笛常被用做战笛,爱尔兰风笛用于私人娱乐和跳舞。

* Ireland is not very noted for visual culture (视觉文化)compared with its literature and music.

8. Popular sports in Ireland (爱尔兰流行的体育运动)

Soccer or football, rugby, cricket and tennis owe their origins to Britain. The newest and most fashionable ball game in Ireland is golf.Other widely popular sports are sailing and running. But that nearest the Irish heart must be the sport of horse-racing because they can place a bet for the occasion.英式足球、橄榄球、板球和网球都是起源于英国的。爱尔兰 最新的和最流行的球类运动是高尔夫球。其它广泛流行的体育运动还有帆船运动和赛跑 。但是爱尔兰人最喜欢的运动是赛马,因为他们可以在赛马会上赌马。

Hurling (爱尔兰式曲棍球)

This sport is the most natively Irish game is hurling. It is played by two teams of fifteen players(每队15人), with a ball like a hockey ball which is struck by wooden sticks with a curved, rounded end or boss. 爱尔兰式曲棍球是爱尔兰的本土运动。它由两队参与,每队15人, 球形与曲棍球hockey的一样,球棍的头是弧形或圆形的.

9. Science and technology in Ireland (爱尔兰的科学技术)

Distinguished names:

1) Robert Boyle罗伯特·波伊耳 (1627-1691):the “father of chemisty” 出生于爱尔兰的英国化学家,被称为“化学之父”.

2) John Tyndall 约翰·廷道尔(1820-1893): inventor of the fireman’s respirator and etc.发明了消防面具等。

3) Lord Kelvin 凯尔文勋爵 (1824-1907): renowned for his work on transatlantic cables以跨大西洋电缆工程著称。

4) Charles Parsons 查尔斯·帕逊(1854-1931): invented the steam turbine engine蒸汽涡轮发动机

5) Ernest T. Walton E.T.S.沃尔顿( (1903-1995) of Trinity College, Dublin won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1951.

10. The Irish identity in the world (爱尔兰人在世界上的身份特征)

Ireland is a very people-oriented (以人为本的) society, which regards the family as central to its values. Even today, the Irish still have a residual(残留的) resentment (怨恨,愤恨) against the British, and against any large nation which they feel might try to bully (欺负,凌辱) them.

The Irish diaspora (爱尔兰裔)

The Irish diaspora, as it has been called, is a scattering of Irish people across the world, usually as the result of dire conditions at home-famine, foreign domination, and poverty. As a result, Irish people can today be found in

significant concentrations in many countries. In fact, it is hard to go anywhere and not find Irish people. 爱尔兰裔人是指散居世界各地爱尔兰人,通常是由于其家乡的恶劣环境导致他们移民---饥荒、受外来人口的统治、贫穷等原因。 结果,现在在许多国家都会发现有大量的爱尔兰人聚居的地方。事实上,很难找到没有爱尔兰人的地方.

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范文十:IrishEnglish爱尔兰英语

爱尔兰英语

从历史的角度来看, 英语对爱尔兰人来说是外来语。爱尔兰人的祖先是盖尔人,其母语是盖尔语。但是. 英语文学史上许多伟大的作家, 如王尔德、萧伯纳、乔雯、叶芝、贝克特等都是爱尔兰人。而许多爱尔兰作家如斯威夫特等甚至被当成是英国人。一些人认为在运用英语写作和进行语言交流方面.

爱尔兰人比英国人更出色。

爱尔兰人说英语开始于1 6 世纪晚期。从此以后,爱尔兰人开始“ 玩” 英 语,并且自己创造了英语的变体— 爱尔兰英语。

具有讽刺意味的是. 爱尔兰人从没能以恰当的方式学习英语. 或者确切地说,从没有人认真地、恰当地教授他们英语。尽管英国人征服了爱尔兰,但是他们从没有费心给当地人介绍他们的文化和语言。因此,英国征服爱尔兰的最初一段时间里,爱尔兰人继续讲盖尔语。但后来, 爱尔兰人明白了要想与英国人做生意, 就必须学会运用英语进行交流。从1831 年起,爱尔兰所有的学校教学都使用英语进行。

由于英国人对教授英语没有兴趣. 因此爱尔兰人只得开始通过阅读自学英语。他们读的书大多都是百年前的过时的书。这样就导致了爱尔兰英语的发音是过时的发音。直到今天,爱尔兰英语保留了许多英国英语的发音。

比如爱尔兰人象18 世纪英国人一样,把sea[si: ] 发成[sei],以便与w a y 同 韵; 英语中指冷笑者、讥笑者而今天这种意义只用于爱尔兰。爱尔兰人使用古 老的英语词docket,而不用当代词ticket。爱尔兰人通过阅读古书学习英语的另一结果是, 他们经常使用较长的、复杂的词汇比如, 他们很叮能用terminology来代替words;这是因为书面体英语比日语体英语更为正式。如果他们不是从书本里学习英语,而是从老师那儿学习英语. 那么他们说话、写作可能会随便得多。 尽管爱尔兰人采用了英国英语的词汇, 但他们仍保待了他们自己的语法、语音、习语他们所采纳的语法是从那些居住在爱尔卜的社会低阶层的英国居民那儿学来的。而这些人的语法知识又非常贫乏。受此影响,爱尔兰英语的语法也比较混乱。爱尔兰英语巾经常出现动词现在时第三人称单数后不变的情况。当爱尔兰人听不懂英语时,他们就回到盖尔语上。盖尔语至今仍在影响英语爱尔兰英语中许多从词汇。盖尔语中没有现在完成式因此爱尔兰人对这个时态颇为苦恼比如,他们说 I am after finishing my tea,而不说 I have finished my tea.

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