爱尔兰和英国

爱尔兰和英国

【范文精选】爱尔兰和英国

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【优秀范文】爱尔兰和英国

范文一:英国政府和爱尔兰共和国政府的不同英文

The differences between British and Irish governments

Actually, the government of the Republic of Ireland is rather similar to the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. For example, they both have PM and the structures of two countries’ parliaments are alike even though some names of Irish government are the same as those of America. Besides, the Queen in England and the President in Ireland are both symbolic. However, when it comes to some specific aspects, they indeed have many differences, just as the table below shows.

Jane Chen

Class 10101 2010/12/20

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范文二:【天道独家】CUG2014年英国大学排名-苏格兰和北爱尔兰

Http://tiandaoedu.com

CUG 2014年英国大学排名-苏格兰和北爱尔兰

《完全大学指南》CUG 发布的2014年英国大学排名中苏格兰Scotland和北爱尔兰Northern Ireland排名的全部内容介绍,对于大家在英国留学选校的时候有非常大的参考意义。大家可以在自己选校的过程中对此进行适当的参考和借鉴。 完全大学指南 2014年英国大学排名

《完全大学指南》排行榜基于9项指标对大学进行排名,包括学生的满意度、研究水平、师生比例、入学标准、科研评估、学校设施、学位等级、毕业率以及就业前景,其中分量最重的4项指标为入学标准、学生满意度、科研评估和就业前景。

原文地址:http://ranking.tiandaoedu.com/topic/118647.html

天道教育

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范文三:北爱尔兰(英)

Overview:

Northern Ireland is known as the green kingdom under the jurisdiction of the British Government, the capital of Belfast. Here, graceful natural landscapes, the air is fresh, and the vast grasslands and countless mountains of Northern Ireland lie, outlining Northern Ireland’s unique “green” the main line of natural landscape. Along the northern coast of Northern Ireland, a busy harbor and castles which has hundreds of years of history intersect, and the modern life and history culture coexist here in harmony.

Northern Irish is friendly and criminal crime rate is the lowest in the whole United Kingdom. The local music, dance and beautiful natural scenery and rich ancient culture express the Northern Ireland's unique exotic custom to make the city which decorates in the green pastures has become a good place to go sightseeing.

Food:

Northern Ireland family diet with beef and potatoes, vegetables, bread is the staple food. The cooking method of potatoes is rich,, and the cooking methods of vegetables is boiled. Britain's most famous food — fish and chips, is also the most representative food in Northern Ireland. In many local fast food restaurants or street vendors, you can eat a variety of delicious food cooked with potatoes.

In Belfast there are many restaurants of different countries’ styles, among

which the most is Chinese style’s dining-room, perhaps because the Chinese are Northern Ireland's biggest floating population! In recent years, due to the increase of the foreign residents, great changes in the diet have taken place. On the based of the traditional diets, it brought in the dietary patterns of France, Italy and other countries.

At the mere mention of whisky, people will naturally think of Scotland, however, you must never imagine that the world’s first registered trademark of the whiskey brewing plants in the territory of Northern Ireland, called Bush Mill. In addition, the "Guinness" is a kind of bitter black beer, as created by the Guinness family, and is proud of the Irish wines. This beer is brewed from charred wheat, and is said to great nutritional value, in hospital frail patients may use this as a tonic. Shopping:

Wherever you walk in Ireland can see many traditional handicrafts that make you a lifetime. In Fermanagh you can go to Belleek pottery factory to appreciate and buy Belleek manual exquisite products. Before leaving, don't forget to buy a bodhrn home to learning knock the drum. If you want to enjoy Waterford, be sure to visit Waterford crystal glass factory of local. Northern Ireland is famous for its flax; you can go to the Lisburn in the Irish Linen center (Irish Linen Centre) to buy. Throughout the handicraft inn factory or shops you can find a tweed Nebuchadnezzar sweater made of wool by hand.

Accommodation: In Northern Ireland there are many kinds of different types of accommodation site to choose from. You can enjoy the traditional local life in Ireland in the rural farms and fields. Or choose a cheap youth hostels, camping trailers, tent shelter in parks and at your own expense. In addition, there are luxurious castle, the new hotel and family housing. Boarding dormitory (Guesthouses) and the bed and breakfast of B&B style accommodation for you to provide a closer service.

Recreation:

In the cultural life, the traditional Irish music and dance loved by people around the world. Music melody is accompanied by a road trip. You will meet outgoing gentle notes alto horn performer in the streets. In Irish pubs and clubs, you will appreciate modern dance, or Irish traditional melody.

The opera house in Belfast, the outstanding composer’s show allows you to enjoy the romantic ambience. In very modern waterfront hall, as well as antique Grand Theater and the Ulster Hall, the annual dance drama staged all kinds of music. Held in November each year, "the Belfast Arts Festival" is the one of the few large-scale arts festival in United Kingdom, making people's cultural life colorful.

Transportation:

Airlines

There are three airports in Northern Ireland: Belfast International airport, Belfast city airport and the City of Derry airport. The traffic is very convenient.

Railway

Railways often have price promotions, for example ,3 pounds will render a chance for you to go anywhere in Northern Ireland with no time restriction on Sunday。Somehow in some certain time and route, two guys can buy just one ticket as long as they are in company and guarantee they would come back together that day. However, the board time will change in some specific period of time. So please take more attention. Water transportation

In Northern Ireland there are many ferry stations, they are very convenient for people's connection between the islands.

The best travel time:

Northern Ireland belongs to the temperate maritime climate, mild climate, moderate rainfall, it is located in high latitudes, summer is cool, and winter is more mild and humid (summer is about 18 ~25 ° c, winter is about 2~5 ° c). Because of this wet weather in Northern Ireland, people created a world of emeralds; bring various high-quality dairy products to the children's survival.

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范文四:英国、爱尔兰火车通票

英国、爱尔兰火车通票

1、适用国家

英国、爱尔兰

2、乘客限制

英国,爱尔兰以外长期居民(居住六个月以上者),可购买及使用此种通票。

3、购票及使用规定

(1) 美元报价,人民币支付,汇率将参考相关银行牌价,以出票之日我机构告之为准

(2) 5岁以下不占座儿童免费,5-16岁儿童享受半价

(3) 19 点规则:如持活期通票乘坐 19 点以后出发的直达过夜火车,在通票日期栏内填写第二天日期(第二天必须在有效期内),且第二天可继续有效使用;

(4) 通票持有者可以享有通票覆盖国家提供的其他签约的各类优惠旅游产品

(5) 相关购票、退票、改票等相关事宜,请以出票机构最终告之为准

(6) 本机构完全享有对于此产品及其销售的定义、性质、通途、规则的解释权

(7) 此报价为最终含税价格,购票时需另外支付20人民币/人/张出票费

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范文五:华为聘诺基亚前高管拓展英国和爱尔兰业务

来源:新浪科技 编译:唐风 时间:2011―05―05

北京时间5月5日凌晨消息,华为今天宣布,该公司已经聘用了曾在诺基亚和三星都担任过高管的马克一米奇逊(Mark Mitchinson),他将负责拓展华为在英国和爱尔兰市场上的手机业务。

华为称,米奇逊将担任该公司英国手机销售和营销部门的负责人,这是华为打造企业品牌计划的一部分内容,原因是该公司正在中国以外的市场上拓展业务。华为的传统业务是为手机公司生产设备,但目前正计划将其业务范围拓展至个人消费者手机和智能手机市场。

据悉,华为计划将今年的智能手机出货量提高至1200万部到1500万部,远高于2010年的300万部。此外,华为还计划在未来5年时间里将旗下手机部门的规模从目前的50亿美元拓展至200亿美元。

在被华为聘用以前,米奇逊担任消费电子产品零售商Carphone Warehouse负责批发和经销业务的董事总经理。

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范文六:内部审计与咨询实践:英国爱尔兰和意大利比较

内部审计与咨询实践:英国/爱尔兰和意大利比较

内部审计是审计的一个分领域。它的演进需要综合研究结果和专业知识的不断更新。在过去的二十多年里,公众对公司治理问题关注的增加和越来越多的企业采用外包非核心业务的策略,带动企业重新审视对内部审计的期望。特别是20世纪80年代经历了裁员、组织扁平化、流程再造和内部控制扩大化给内部审计人员带来承接各种特殊项目和承担传统的角色界限以外责任的压力。对此,内部审计专业人士已提请其同行的注意,“创造价值”已经成为一个生存问题,并力图说明使内部审计部门增加价值的方法。与此同时,反复的财务丑闻使风险发展成公司治理一个重要的方面,不断变化的内部控制概念也提出内部审计作为一种良好的公司治理实践的一部分的重要性。

测量和评价内部控制有效性的活动范围的扩大为行业重新审视它在竞争日益激烈的市场中的地位提供了有利机会。一项为期两年的研究,包含22条建议和合理支持,终于发表在该研究所的专著“面向未来的愿景:内部审计专业实践框架”。该研究起草了一个反映内部审计行业的风险基础导向和咨询活动新趋势的定义。这项定义旨在展示内部审计的行业价值,重点从“内部审计人员如何做好本职工作”变化到“是什么”,即内部审计人员可以为董事会、高级管理人员和其他利益相关者做什么。

经过实践者、学者、顾问和会计专家之间的辩论,内部审计师公会颁布了他们新的内部审计的定义,突出一个较广的范围,现在明确包括咨询服务。它指出:内部审计是一种独立客观的保证和咨询活动,旨在增加价值和改善组织的运营。它可以通过系统化、规范化的方法,评价和改进风险管理、控制和治理过程的有效性,从而帮助组织实现其目标(IIA,1999)。 其中,咨询服务的定义是:咨询及相关客户服务活动。性质范围与客户达成一致,同时它的目的是增加价值并改进组织的治理、风险管理和控制流程。例子包括咨询、建议、协助和培训(IIA,2004:7)。

内部审计定义的改变增加了内部审计的范畴,即包括咨询活动。然而,尽管承认和澄清内部审计的咨询功能,随后很少有研究关注咨询服务的作用。因此,我们的目标是在这篇文章中通过英国/爱尔兰和意大利IIA成员的样本,提供内部审计咨询活动定义变化的性质、程度和后果的比较。这两个自我完成的比较问卷调查结果揭示了在这三个国家自1999年起,审计咨询水平和活动范围的显著提升,但这一变化在英国/爱尔兰更大。虽然这些国家之间有相似之处,但更多的英国/爱尔兰成员参与到变革管理和项目管理,而意大利多数成员都参与模型设计和实施。在这些国家,内部审计师同样正在经历着收益和挫折。 研究问题:

问题1:英国/爱尔兰和意大利在1999年引入新的定义前后内部审计咨询活动是否有显著差异?

问题2:上述国家之间在以下方面是否存在显著差异(i)内部审计参与咨询的影响及(ii)内部审计师对有关事项的意见?

问题3:如果存在差异或相似之处,那么它们是什么以及可能的原因是什么? IIA英国和爱尔兰成员的问卷调查开始于2004年3月(Woodward & Selim,2005)。问卷随专业杂志一同发放。问卷的推荐信由研究所的行政长官签署。同时,第二作者邀请了参与咨询实践活动的会员。研究所成员于两星期内返还他们完成的回答问卷并获得报酬。一共195份有效问卷被采用,回应率达19%。

毫不奇怪,鉴于自1999年以来内部审计部门所开展的咨询工作水平的显著增加,更多的时间被分配到这样的活动,尽管我们应注意,在英国/爱尔兰近三分之一的受访者的部门仍然无法分配时间做咨询活动。与此相比,几乎意大利所有部门都把四分之三或超过10%他们的时间分配到咨询活动。

总体上说,来自这些国家的内部审计师认为,尽管这一直是一个工作量增加的活动,内部审计参与咨询工作在关于人员配备、士气、内部审计在一般组织的地位、绩效审计和增加价值方面提供了积极的效益。

许多评论家都提出了关于在保证内部审计需要独立性的前提下,其咨询和确认双重作用的担忧,而我们的研究为这种担忧提供了混合的支持。英国/爱尔兰内部审计师报告参与咨询工作使得内部审计降低了独立和客观能力,而明显更多的意大利内部审计师报告增加了该能力。同样,明显更多的英国/爱尔兰内部审计师报告内部审计人员利益冲突的风险的增加,而大多数意大利内部审计师报告承担咨询角色没有产生任何影响。

除了在咨询有利于内部审计职业发展、内部审计应更加积极主动地参与咨询方面的共识外,对于内部审计部门参与咨询活动的意见在这些国家内部和国家之间各不相同。更多英国/爱尔兰的受访者倾向于继续表示对于咨询和其潜在的失败风险与对内部审计独立性的负面影响的关注,并赞同积极主动的方法更有效。意大利的受访者似乎看到了它与外部顾问的关系,特别是在知识转移方面的潜力。

调查结果显示,超过一半(英国/爱尔兰47%)的受访者报告说,他们的内部审计部门在1999年后发生了明显的变化,1999年以前超过一半(57%)的内部审计部门没有在咨询上分配时间。在英国和爱尔兰,在1999年以前内部审计部门进行咨询工作项目的平均数目为2.6,而1999年之后的数字已上升到7。其中,最多产的咨询工作是风险管理(65%),项目管理(65%),公司治理(59%),以及应急计划和灾难恢复(55%)。调查结果还显示了一些内部审计人员配置问题上的积极影响:参与咨询工作已经使大多数内部审计部门增加士气(86%),提升招聘员工的能力(61%),吸引技能多样性(57%),留住员工(66%),并提供促进机会(51%)。至于内部审计师对以上变化的意见,大约三分之二的受访者认为相对于传统审计业务,咨询工作更加积极主动,但同时有一半的受访者认为咨询工作将带来更大的失败风险。

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范文七:爱尔兰共和军

作者:钱星博

国际展望 1997年01期

自从英国政府和爱尔兰共和军谈判破裂以来,恐怖活动又在英国各地频频发生,使整个英国处于惶惶不安之中。

谈判破裂的因素很多,其中之一是共和军要求英国政府释放全部被关押的恐怖分子,并承认他们是政治犯。可是梅杰首相拒绝了他们的要求,并指出他们是普通罪犯,在长达27年的时间中,他们把北爱尔兰闹得天翻地复,犯下了谋杀、爆破以及其它罪行。

自从1969年暴乱爆发以来,阿尔斯特已有三千多人横死,三万多人受伤,其中有许多是在拥挤的公共场所被炸弹炸得肢体残缺。暴乱拖住一万多名英国部队的官兵,八千名在当地招募的阿尔斯特防卫团团员,以及一万多名阿尔斯特皇家保安队队员。

爱尔兰共和军的行动是有它的历史根源的。悲剧始于1155年,当时历史上唯一的英籍教皇亚德里安四世“授权”英皇亨利二世征服爱尔兰。这场斗争延续了好几个世纪,直到1603年才完全征服了爱尔兰。英国宫廷于是把他们的采地分给了从英格兰和苏格兰迁往爱尔兰的基督教移民,但他们必须完成一项任务——负责镇压阿尔斯特的天主教农民。在当时,新教和旧教的教派斗争是引起欧洲战乱的主要原因之一。

其后三百年,爱尔兰的天主教农民被压榨得赤贫如洗,虽有屡次起义,但都被镇压下去,直到1916年才有了基本改变。这一年的复活节,都柏林市爆发了暴乱,后来引起了广泛的反英活动。1919年爱尔兰共和军成立后,英国终于让步,提出了南北分治的妥协办法,于1922年将爱尔兰南部天主教占统治地位的地区划分为26个郡,这些郡后来成为爱尔兰共和国;又将多数人信奉基督教的阿尔斯特分为六郡,这六郡都决意留在联合王国,组成了北爱尔兰联邦共和国。

但爱尔兰共和军不同意分裂,他们继续奋斗,力求统一。共和军临时派是在1970年从正规的爱尔兰共和军中脱离出来的支派,他们主张用军事手段解决北爱尔兰问题。

说也也奇怪,英国执政的保守党和大部分在野的工党人士,原则上都不反对爱尔兰以某种方式谋求统一。北爱尔兰对英国有损无益,它的失业率高达17%以上,英国政府每年要津贴它24亿镑。不过两党都坚持一项基本原则:必须举行阿尔斯特地区居民的全民投票,有三分之二以上的居民赞成统一,方可统一,而爱尔兰共和军是坚决反对这一立场的。

问题就出在这里,北爱尔兰信奉基督教的人要比天主教徒多出一倍,而基督徒几乎全部反对与爱尔兰共和国(人口中96%为天主教徒)合并。阿尔斯特的天主教徒虽然赞成统一,可是大多数人都认为这必须得到基督徒的首肯,否则情况会更糟糕。

自从南北分裂到1972年整整半个世纪内,北爱尔兰在联合王国内享有极多的自治权,但大权都在基督徒手中,他们控制省议会,不让天主教徒参与任何决策。雇主绝大多数都是基督徒,他们不肯雇用天主教徒;有些天主教地区的失业率高达50%。

在这样的环境里,宗教偏见越来越深,这与神学无关,无异是一种部族仇恨,是17世纪基督徒移民的后代与爱尔兰本地人的后代之间的仇恨。基督徒的孩子进公立学校,在校内读英国历史;天主教徒由于梵蒂冈教廷的支持,将孩子送往教会学校,在校内读爱尔兰历史。基督徒与天主教徒之间从来没有任何来往。贝尔法斯特的劳动阶层的居住区里,两派教徒各有各的特色,基督徒的屋顶上悬挂着米字旗,墙壁上涂写着袤渎教皇的脏话。天主教徒往往悬挂着爱尔兰三色旗,墙壁涂写着侮辱英国女王的污言。

现代的冲突爆发于60年代末期,开始是天主教徒为抗议在就业及其它方面所受到的歧视而举行的和平民权运动。游行队伍遭到了基督教徒的袭击,不久,英军便受命在贝尔法斯特和伦敦德里保护天主教徒。

在英国政府的压力下,由基督徒所把持的省议会在1972年关闭,改为直接受伦敦的统治。天主教徒起先欢迎英军,但由于英军事事插手,不久便变得反对英军了。这样,原来默默无闻的爱尔兰共和军便乘机而出,作出一副“真正”保护天主教徒利益者的姿态。

共和军既得不到自己同胞的支持,他们的行为又为法律所不容,于是我行我素,凭着“理想精神”并结合着他们所谓“为社会打抱不平的侠盗精神”行事,实际上他们是不折不扣的恐怖主义分子。

共和军的成员多数出身于贝尔法斯特的天主教贫民区,他们没有受过良好教育,失业人数超过一半,他们憋着一肚子的气,动辄抢劫银行。有谁敢顶撞他们,他们就大开杀戒,惯用的手法是用枪射穿反对者的膝盖,据统计,至少有三百多人由此而变成残废。如果犯了他们认为是严重的过错,便将这些人斩首或刺杀。

贝尔法斯特的三十多万市民二十多年来备受这类恐怖活动的折磨,就像当年伦敦市民遭受纳粹闪电战之苦一样。市民从经历中学会了如何保存性命的“诀窍”,比方说,见到无人的汽车便赶快躲开,因为共和军常把定时炸弹放在偷来的汽车的后箱里。许多人不敢到大公司去买东西,于是电话购货业务便行俏一时。市民所受到的心理压力十分明显,每次炸弹爆炸后,总有一群人围着现场哭泣。

骚乱已经延续二十多年了,年轻的英国士兵每天24小时在贝尔法斯特市的商业区和天主教徒的住宅区巡逻,四人一组,手持冲锋枪面向东南西北四个方向,闪闪躲躲地迅速地在街上来来往往,他们解释道:“我们只要站着20分钟不动,便会有狙击手向你射击。”

军警消灭了不少共和军成员。在枪战中丧生的共和军约有千人,另外还有一些是被他们自己的炸弹炸死的。现在还有一千多人被关在监狱里,据统计,现在仍在外面活动的顽固恐怖分子总数不过几百人。不过,英国政府已沮丧地发现,即使只有极少数的恐怖分子,也能使一个发达的军事强国长年处于危机之中。

骚乱会终止吗?多数人对前途持悲观态度,目前双方已渐渐形成了僵持不下的局面。英国虽然把驻阿尔斯特的部队以最多时的二万二千人减至目前的约一万人,但同时大大增强了阿尔斯特皇家保安队的实力。共和军没有可能把保安队打败,而保安队也无力把共和军剿灭。大家都知道这是不可能用军事力量来解决的。

英国被公认是世界政治场中惯于运用权术的老手,可是在爱尔兰共和军问题上,它却遇到了前所未有的麻烦事,给日薄西山的大英帝国又蒙上了一层阴影。

阅读详情:http://www.wenku1.com/news/247710C150149343.html

范文八:英文化-爱尔兰

Unit 11 Land, People and History (Ireland)

(爱尔兰的人文、地理和历史)

一、本单元重点内容

1. The difference between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

(北爱尔兰与爱尔兰共和国的区别)

2. Unique geographic features of Ireland (爱尔兰独特的地理特征)

3. The natural environment (自然环境)

4. Temperate climate (温带气候)

5. The expansion of tourist industry (旅游业的扩张)

6. Intensive farming (精耕细作)

7. Emigration (移民出境)

8. The Great Famine of 1845—1848 (1845-1848年的“大饥荒”)

9. The Celtic Tiger (凯尔特老虎)

10. The English Colonisation of Ireland (英国人对爱尔兰的殖民统治)

11. A warrior culture and history (尚武文化和历史)

12. Campaigns for Home Rule (自治运动)

13. Irish Independence in 1921 (1921年爱尔兰的独立)

二、本单元重、难点辅导

1. The difference between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

(北爱尔兰与爱尔兰共和国的区别)

1) Northern Ireland is a province of the UK, while the Republic of Ireland is an independent nation in its own right. 北爱尔兰是英国的一个省,共和国是一个独立的国家。

2) The area covering the Republic of Ireland is 5 times of that of Northern Ireland.

•爱尔兰共和国的面积是北爱的5倍

3) Most of the people in Northern Ireland are Protestants while the majority of the people in the Republic are Catholics. 大多数爱尔兰共和国的人是天主教徒。

2. Unique geographic features of Ireland (爱尔兰独特的地理特征)

1) Ireland is situated off the northwest coast of Great Britain, and Scotland is across the narrow strait of water(与苏格兰一水之隔).

2) In terms of geographical elevations, the island of Ireland resembles a tea saucer, with a large central lowland comprised of limestone (从地表上来看,爱尔兰像一个茶盘,中间是大片的石灰石低地).

3. The natural environment (自然环境)

1) Ireland is an intense green, or rather mixture of greens, which changes little between summer and winter; the grasslands flourish in all seasons. 爱尔兰有着大片大片的绿色草场,而且四季不变。

2) Ireland has a smaller range of native flora and fauna than elsewhere in Europe.

与欧洲其它地方相比,爱尔兰当地的动植物种类较少。

4. Temperate climate(温带气候)

1) Ireland is not very hot during summer, nor is it very cold in winter.

2) Snow and ice are rare.

3) Ireland is almost always damp.

5. Economy

1) The expansion of tourist industry (旅游业的扩张)

① Over-development of many resorts has led to a despoliation of many landscapes. 许多风景区的过度开发使环境受到破坏。

② The expansion of the tourist industry is particularly dangerous for the environment. 旅游业的发展对环境的破坏尤为危险

2) Intensive farming (精耕细作)

New methods of intensive farming have led to pollution of springs and lakes.

3) The Celtic Tiger (凯尔特虎,“虎虎有生气的爱尔兰”经济)

The economy of Ireland has been booming in recent years and thus it has become the “Celtic Tiger.”由于爱尔兰的经济在加入欧盟之后持续高速增长,又由于爱尔兰人的祖先为凯尔特人,故被称为“凯尔特虎”,正如新加坡、香港、台湾与韩国等国家和地区在经济持续高速增长时期被称为“小龙”

6. Emigration (移民出境)

Emigration took place before the Great Famine, mostly from the northern part of Ireland. The emigrants went to the New World (Canada and America) to seek better economic position.

7. The Great Famine of 1845—1848 (1845-1848年的“大饥荒”)

The Great Famine took place from 1845—1848 when successive potato crops failed and many people of Ireland starved to death, or died of the diseases which preyed on malnutrition Many left the country for the New World. The Great Famine became a watershed in Irish history, not merely because there was mass starvation and emigration, but also because the British government appeared to be indifferent to the fate of the poorest people in its nearest colony. Naturally this period is characterized by campaigns for national independence and land reform.1845年至1848年,爱尔兰重要农作物马铃薯连年受灾减产,许多人被饿死,或死于营养不良造成的疾病。许多人离开这里前往新大陆。“大饥荒”是爱尔兰历史上的分水岭事件,不仅是因为有大量的人饿死和大规模的移民, 还因为 英国政府似乎对离它最近的殖民地的穷苦百姓的命运毫不关心。很自然地,这一段时期,爱尔兰人纷纷掀起了民族独立运动和土地改革的运动。

Result: the immediate result of the Great Famine was a decimation of the population(人口锐减), so the Republic of Ireland is a young country with more than half of the people under the age of 25. 大饥荒的直接后果是人口大量减少,因此爱尔兰共和国是一个年轻的国家,半数以上的人在25

8. The Celtic and English Colonisation of Ireland (英国人对爱尔兰的殖民统治)

1) Ireland has been invaded by Celts, Christians, Vikings, Normans and English. Celtic invaders may have come to Ireland as early as the 6th century BC. Celts were a warrior culture (尚武文化), making swift attacks in horse-drawn chariots (马拉战车). Much like the Homeric warriors in the Iliad, they had their own saga. Celts’ language survived through history and Irish is the first official language of the Republic of Ireland.

•凯尔特人尚武、爱好冒险, 有着许多充满幻想的古老传奇 , 坐着马拉的战车快速对敌人发起进攻. 就象古希腊荷马史诗《伊利亚特》中的勇士一样,他们也有自己的英雄传奇。

•凯尔特人的语言和文化幸存下来了,爱尔兰的第一官方语言是爱尔兰语.

2) English invasion of Ireland: in 1541, Henry VIII declared himself king of Ireland---the first English monarch to do so. 英格兰人入侵爱尔兰: •1541年,亨利8世宣称自己是爱尔兰的国王,这是英格兰国王中第一个这么做的。

3) Queen Elizabeth I’s army defeated the Irish at the Battle of Kinsale in 1601. For the first time, the entire island was controlled by a strong English central government.

•1601年女王伊丽莎白一世的军队打败了爱尔兰人。整个爱尔兰岛第一次由强大的英格兰中央政府统一管理。

4) In 1782, the Irish parliament was granted independence.

•由于爱尔兰人的不断争取,

1782年,爱尔兰议会获得立法自主权。(然而,该议会仅仅代表少数盎格鲁-爱尔兰特权阶层,

5) After the defeat of the 1798 rebellion, the London government took drastic action to curtain any notions of Irish independence. 1798年反抗被镇压后,伦敦政府采取了强硬措施压制爱尔兰的独立运动

6) The Irish parliament was voted out of existence in 1800. 1800年,爱尔兰国会被取缔。(1801年,爱尔兰与大不列颠联合为一体。)

9. Campaigns for Home Rule (自治运动)

A constitutional movement seeking Home Rule was instituted up (提出) by Isaac Butt in 1870. The Home Rule Bill was finally passed in 1914.1870年,艾萨克 · 巴特提出地方自治的口号,于是掀起了一场宪政运动,号召建立在帝国制度内的爱尔兰国会 。自治法案最终于1914年得以通过。

10. Sinn Fein (新芬党)

Arthur Griffith developed a political party in the period of 1905-08 known as Sinn Fein---meaning “we ourselves” in the Irish language. The Sinn Fein policy was that Irish MPs should withdraw from Westminster and establish an independent parliament. Traditionally, Sinn Fein had close links with the Irish Republican brotherhood, a secret society struggling for national independence.亚瑟·格里菲斯于1905一-1908年期间创建的新芬党也想要建立一个独立的议会。

11. The Easter Rising of 1916 (1916年的复活节起义)

It was a rebellion by Irish nationalists against British rule on 24 April 1916 (Easter Monday). The Irish Volunteers, led by Patrick Pearse and the Irish Citizen Army, led by James Connolly, staged the uprising. The British crushed the rising within a week and executed its leaders. A wave of nationalist sentiment produced an electoral victory for Sinn Fein in 1918.1916年的复活节起义也是爱尔兰的一次独立运动, 起义也是以失败而告终。

12. Irish Independence in 1921 (1921年爱尔兰的独立)

In December, 1921 the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed, with the result that 26 counties gained independence as the new Irish Free State. Six counties in Ulster are known as Northern Ireland.

1921年12月,签订了“盎格鲁-爱尔兰”条约,南方的26个郡获得独立,形成新的爱尔兰自由邦,北方的6个郡被称为北爱,

Unit 14 Irish Culture: Language, Literature and Arts

爱尔兰的文化:语言,文学和艺术

一、本单元重点内容

1. Erse and the colonial policy (爱尔兰盖耳语和殖民政策)

2. Hiberno-English (爱尔兰英语)

3. Oral culture tradition (口头文化传统)

4. Folk heritage (民间传统)

5. Irish literature (爱尔兰的文学)

6. Nobel Prize winners for Literature (诺贝尔文学奖的获得者)

7. Irish music and dance (爱尔兰的音乐、舞蹈) and Riverdance (“河之舞”)

8. Popular sports in Ireland (爱尔兰流行的体育运动)and Hurling (爱尔兰式曲棍球)

9. Science and technology in Ireland (爱尔兰的科学技术)

10. The Irish identity in the world (爱尔兰人在世界上的身份特征)

二、本单元重、难点辅导

1. Erse and the colonial policy (爱尔兰盖耳语和殖民政策)

The Irish people spoke their own language, called Irish or Erse.

However, the English colonial policy brought much pressure to stop the Irish people speaking their own language and to learn standard English instead. Until the mid-19th century Irish was still spoken widely by the peasant classes. The death blow (致命打击) to the Irish language was the Great Famine of 1845-1849. In the late 19th century, an attempt was made to revive (复兴,恢复) the use of the Irish language among the middle and

professional classes. 爱尔兰人讲他们自己的语言,称爱尔兰语或厄尔斯语。然而,英国的殖民政策不断地施压,以阻止爱尔兰人讲他们自己的语言,而要求他们学标准英语。直到19世纪中期,爱尔兰语还被农民阶级广泛使用。1845-1848年的大饥荒对爱尔兰语带来了致命的打击. 19世纪末期,有人试图恢复爱尔兰语在中产阶级和职业阶层中的应用。After the first Irish national state was set up in 1922, a concerted, official attempt was made to make Irish once again the national language. And Irish was made compulsory subject in schools.

2. Hiberno-English (爱尔兰英语)

Despite such official pressures, the language that is spoken universally in the Republic of Ireland is a version of standard English known as Hiberno-English. 尽管有官方的这些压力,如今在爱尔兰广泛使用的语言是标准英语的另一版本,被称为“爱尔兰英语” 。

3. Oral culture tradition (口头文化传统)

Ireland is a culture which operates most obviously on an oral level. Almost inevitably, an Irish person will take an opportunity to talk even if pressed for time (时间紧迫). The basis for this is in the original peasant culture, which makes the transfer from an oral to a written culture only slowly in the late 19th century. But even among the most literate classes, great value is extended to the ability to talk spontaneously and with grace and force. Oral culture is one key to Ireland’s very effective business and diplomatic efforts. 爱尔兰是一个注重口头文化的国家,爱尔兰人会抓住每一个机会与人交谈,即使是时间紧迫也是如此. 口头文化传统起源于最早的农民文化,直到19世纪末期,这种口头文化才逐渐缓慢地向书面文化过渡。但是,即使是在受过最好教育的阶层,人们还是非常重视自然,优雅和有力的谈话能力. 爱尔兰的商业和外交努力都很有效,其中口头文化是一大关键原因。

4. Folk heritage (民间传统)

Ireland is a traditional culture which has derived from its rich folk heritage.

5. Irish literature (爱尔兰的文学)

In Ireland, writers and poets are honored most. Writers may publish in either the Irish or the English language. The first poem identified as “Irish” is the saga of the Tain, which was transmitted orally for centuries before it was written down(在爱尔兰,作家和诗人最受尊敬。作家可以用爱尔兰语,也可以用英语来出版。被认为是第一首爱尔兰语诗歌“泰恩”传奇,已经在口头上流传了几个世纪后才用文字记载下来).

Famous writers include Jonathan Swift乔纳森·斯威夫特 (1667-1745)(famous satire Gulliver’s Travels著名的讽刺作品《格列佛游记》1726), Laurence Sterne 劳伦斯·斯特恩(1713-1768) (English novel Tristram Shandy《项狄传》), playwright Richard Sheridan理查德·谢力丹(1751-1816) (The School for Scandal《丑闻学校》), playwright, poet and novelist Oscar Wilde 奥斯卡·王尔德(1856-1900) [play: The Importance of Being Earnest《认真的重要性》(1895), poetry, The Ballad of Reading Gaol《雷丁狱之歌》(1898) and novel The Picture of

Dorian Gray《道林·格雷的画像》] and novelist James Joyce詹姆斯·乔伊斯(1882-1941) (novels: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man《一个年轻艺术家的画像》and Ulysses《尤利西斯》)

6. Nobel Prize winners for Literature (诺贝尔文学奖的获得者)

The Republic of Ireland has been the home of 4 winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature: 爱尔兰共和国有4位诺贝尔文学奖得主。

1) the poets, W.B. Yeats (1865-1929) and 2) Seamus Heaney (1939-); 3) the playwrights, George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) and 4) Samuel Beckett(1906-1989) 这4位是诗人和剧作家叶芝,诗人西默斯·希尼;剧作家乔治·肖伯纳和塞缪尔·贝克特。

Bernard Shaw’s famous play Pygmalion《卖花女》has been adapted into a film My Fair Lady. 肖伯纳著名的戏剧卖花女曾经被改编成电影 《窈窕淑女》 Samuel is famous for his great absurdist play Waiting for Godot塞缪尔因他的荒诞派戏剧《等待戈多》而出名.

The works of James Joyce and Samuel Becket are self-consciously avant-garde, playing with different dialects and styles of English as if they were part of a game(乔伊斯以及贝克特的作品有自我意识的先锋派风格,运用不同的方言和文体,就像在玩游戏).

7. Irish music and dance (爱尔兰的音乐、舞蹈)

1) Riverdance (“河之舞”)

Riverdance is a very popular form of dancing based on Ireland's intricate folk dances which are rearranged and modernized and adapted onto current stage performance. Dancing is traditionally part of Irish culture. It is usually accompanied by the Irish pipe and fiddle. The music usually sounds fast and furious. Most of the action is from the waist down, with the arms held rigidly at the sides. 舞蹈是爱尔兰文化传统 的一部分。河之舞是一种非常流行于舞台的舞蹈,是由爱尔兰的极其复杂的民间舞蹈,经过重新编排和革新形成的。通常用爱尔兰风向和小提琴来伴奏。音乐通常听起来又快又疯狂。舞蹈的大多数动作都是腰部以下来完成,而胳膊僵硬地放在两侧。

2).The Irish pipe(爱尔兰风笛)

The Irish pipe is distinctive. Unlike the Scottish bagpipe(风笛), which is blown, the Irish pipe is played by holding the airbag (安全气袋) under the arm and pumping(抽吸) it with the elbow. In tone(音调), the Irish pipes are quieter and more musical than those of the Scots, which are employed as war-pipes(战笛). The Irish pipes are for private entertainment, and dancing.

爱尔兰风笛很独特,与苏格兰风笛不同,苏格兰风笛是用吹的,而爱尔兰风笛是表演者在胳膊肘下夹一个气囊,靠胳膊挤压气囊来给风笛供气. 从音调上来讲,爱尔兰风笛比苏格兰风笛更平和,更悦耳。苏格兰风笛常被用做战笛,爱尔兰风笛用于私人娱乐和跳舞。

* Ireland is not very noted for visual culture (视觉文化)compared with its literature and music.

8. Popular sports in Ireland (爱尔兰流行的体育运动)

Soccer or football, rugby, cricket and tennis owe their origins to Britain. The newest and most fashionable ball game in Ireland is golf.Other widely popular sports are sailing and running. But that nearest the Irish heart must be the sport of horse-racing because they can place a bet for the occasion.英式足球、橄榄球、板球和网球都是起源于英国的。爱尔兰 最新的和最流行的球类运动是高尔夫球。其它广泛流行的体育运动还有帆船运动和赛跑 。但是爱尔兰人最喜欢的运动是赛马,因为他们可以在赛马会上赌马。

Hurling (爱尔兰式曲棍球)

This sport is the most natively Irish game is hurling. It is played by two teams of fifteen players(每队15人), with a ball like a hockey ball which is struck by wooden sticks with a curved, rounded end or boss. 爱尔兰式曲棍球是爱尔兰的本土运动。它由两队参与,每队15人, 球形与曲棍球hockey的一样,球棍的头是弧形或圆形的.

9. Science and technology in Ireland (爱尔兰的科学技术)

Distinguished names:

1) Robert Boyle罗伯特·波伊耳 (1627-1691):the “father of chemisty” 出生于爱尔兰的英国化学家,被称为“化学之父”.

2) John Tyndall 约翰·廷道尔(1820-1893): inventor of the fireman’s respirator and etc.发明了消防面具等。

3) Lord Kelvin 凯尔文勋爵 (1824-1907): renowned for his work on transatlantic cables以跨大西洋电缆工程著称。

4) Charles Parsons 查尔斯·帕逊(1854-1931): invented the steam turbine engine蒸汽涡轮发动机

5) Ernest T. Walton E.T.S.沃尔顿( (1903-1995) of Trinity College, Dublin won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1951.

10. The Irish identity in the world (爱尔兰人在世界上的身份特征)

Ireland is a very people-oriented (以人为本的) society, which regards the family as central to its values. Even today, the Irish still have a residual(残留的) resentment (怨恨,愤恨) against the British, and against any large nation which they feel might try to bully (欺负,凌辱) them.

The Irish diaspora (爱尔兰裔)

The Irish diaspora, as it has been called, is a scattering of Irish people across the world, usually as the result of dire conditions at home-famine, foreign domination, and poverty. As a result, Irish people can today be found in

significant concentrations in many countries. In fact, it is hard to go anywhere and not find Irish people. 爱尔兰裔人是指散居世界各地爱尔兰人,通常是由于其家乡的恶劣环境导致他们移民---饥荒、受外来人口的统治、贫穷等原因。 结果,现在在许多国家都会发现有大量的爱尔兰人聚居的地方。事实上,很难找到没有爱尔兰人的地方.

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范文九:IrishEnglish爱尔兰英语

爱尔兰英语

从历史的角度来看, 英语对爱尔兰人来说是外来语。爱尔兰人的祖先是盖尔人,其母语是盖尔语。但是. 英语文学史上许多伟大的作家, 如王尔德、萧伯纳、乔雯、叶芝、贝克特等都是爱尔兰人。而许多爱尔兰作家如斯威夫特等甚至被当成是英国人。一些人认为在运用英语写作和进行语言交流方面.

爱尔兰人比英国人更出色。

爱尔兰人说英语开始于1 6 世纪晚期。从此以后,爱尔兰人开始“ 玩” 英 语,并且自己创造了英语的变体— 爱尔兰英语。

具有讽刺意味的是. 爱尔兰人从没能以恰当的方式学习英语. 或者确切地说,从没有人认真地、恰当地教授他们英语。尽管英国人征服了爱尔兰,但是他们从没有费心给当地人介绍他们的文化和语言。因此,英国征服爱尔兰的最初一段时间里,爱尔兰人继续讲盖尔语。但后来, 爱尔兰人明白了要想与英国人做生意, 就必须学会运用英语进行交流。从1831 年起,爱尔兰所有的学校教学都使用英语进行。

由于英国人对教授英语没有兴趣. 因此爱尔兰人只得开始通过阅读自学英语。他们读的书大多都是百年前的过时的书。这样就导致了爱尔兰英语的发音是过时的发音。直到今天,爱尔兰英语保留了许多英国英语的发音。

比如爱尔兰人象18 世纪英国人一样,把sea[si: ] 发成[sei],以便与w a y 同 韵; 英语中指冷笑者、讥笑者而今天这种意义只用于爱尔兰。爱尔兰人使用古 老的英语词docket,而不用当代词ticket。爱尔兰人通过阅读古书学习英语的另一结果是, 他们经常使用较长的、复杂的词汇比如, 他们很叮能用terminology来代替words;这是因为书面体英语比日语体英语更为正式。如果他们不是从书本里学习英语,而是从老师那儿学习英语. 那么他们说话、写作可能会随便得多。 尽管爱尔兰人采用了英国英语的词汇, 但他们仍保待了他们自己的语法、语音、习语他们所采纳的语法是从那些居住在爱尔卜的社会低阶层的英国居民那儿学来的。而这些人的语法知识又非常贫乏。受此影响,爱尔兰英语的语法也比较混乱。爱尔兰英语巾经常出现动词现在时第三人称单数后不变的情况。当爱尔兰人听不懂英语时,他们就回到盖尔语上。盖尔语至今仍在影响英语爱尔兰英语中许多从词汇。盖尔语中没有现在完成式因此爱尔兰人对这个时态颇为苦恼比如,他们说 I am after finishing my tea,而不说 I have finished my tea.

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范文十:英语国家概况——爱尔兰篇中译英自测

第二部分 爱尔兰

第十章 地理与历史

1爱尔兰分为两个政治区域:____________和___________。_________是英国的一部分,而____________________则是一个独立的国家。爱尔兰的首府是________,它坐落于______________________。

2_________是低地的主要特征。

3______仍是爱尔兰最重要的地形特征,在所有山脉中随处可见,并___________________。 4爱尔兰的气候被描绘成“_______________”。冬天的极冷、漫长的霜冻、大雪以及夏天的酷热都很少见。

5______________是爱尔兰雨量最少的地区。

6爱尔兰有4个不寻常的人口特征:

(1) (2)

(3) (4)

7、1845年开始的___________标志着爱尔兰_________________和__________________。1821年进行的首次人口普查记录人口为6802000人,到1841年上升到820万人。在随后的20年里,由于_______的重创,人口减至660万人,减少了19.5%。在欧洲国家里,爱尔兰因____________________________显得独一无二。

8爱尔兰有两种官方语言:_______________和___________。

9爱尔兰是欧洲最为______________的国家之一。如今,93%的爱尔兰人是__________教徒。 10爱尔兰圣公会是最大的______________。

11、20世纪的最初几十年,爱尔兰___________高涨,甚至更加暴力,1916年爆发的___________时达到高潮,爱尔兰共和国宣布成立。1919年至1921年间,__________________________。1921年,英国人签署了《_____________》,建立了__________________,并在_________________的北爱尔兰________________。

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