The differences between British and Irish governments

Actually, the government of the Republic of Ireland is rather similar to the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. For example, they both have PM and the structures of two countries’ parliaments are alike even though some names of Irish government are the same as those of America. Besides, the Queen in England and the President in Ireland are both symbolic. However, when it comes to some specific aspects, they indeed have many differences, just as the table below shows.

Jane Chen

Class 10101 2010/12/20




CUG 2014年英国大学排名-苏格兰和北爱尔兰

《完全大学指南》CUG 发布的2014年英国大学排名中苏格兰Scotland和北爱尔兰Northern Ireland排名的全部内容介绍,对于大家在英国留学选校的时候有非常大的参考意义。大家可以在自己选校的过程中对此进行适当的参考和借鉴。 完全大学指南 2014年英国大学排名







Northern Ireland is known as the green kingdom under the jurisdiction of the British Government, the capital of Belfast. Here, graceful natural landscapes, the air is fresh, and the vast grasslands and countless mountains of Northern Ireland lie, outlining Northern Ireland’s unique “green” the main line of natural landscape. Along the northern coast of Northern Ireland, a busy harbor and castles which has hundreds of years of history intersect, and the modern life and history culture coexist here in harmony.

Northern Irish is friendly and criminal crime rate is the lowest in the whole United Kingdom. The local music, dance and beautiful natural scenery and rich ancient culture express the Northern Ireland's unique exotic custom to make the city which decorates in the green pastures has become a good place to go sightseeing.


Northern Ireland family diet with beef and potatoes, vegetables, bread is the staple food. The cooking method of potatoes is rich,, and the cooking methods of vegetables is boiled. Britain's most famous food — fish and chips, is also the most representative food in Northern Ireland. In many local fast food restaurants or street vendors, you can eat a variety of delicious food cooked with potatoes.

In Belfast there are many restaurants of different countries’ styles, among

which the most is Chinese style’s dining-room, perhaps because the Chinese are Northern Ireland's biggest floating population! In recent years, due to the increase of the foreign residents, great changes in the diet have taken place. On the based of the traditional diets, it brought in the dietary patterns of France, Italy and other countries.

At the mere mention of whisky, people will naturally think of Scotland, however, you must never imagine that the world’s first registered trademark of the whiskey brewing plants in the territory of Northern Ireland, called Bush Mill. In addition, the "Guinness" is a kind of bitter black beer, as created by the Guinness family, and is proud of the Irish wines. This beer is brewed from charred wheat, and is said to great nutritional value, in hospital frail patients may use this as a tonic. Shopping:

Wherever you walk in Ireland can see many traditional handicrafts that make you a lifetime. In Fermanagh you can go to Belleek pottery factory to appreciate and buy Belleek manual exquisite products. Before leaving, don't forget to buy a bodhrn home to learning knock the drum. If you want to enjoy Waterford, be sure to visit Waterford crystal glass factory of local. Northern Ireland is famous for its flax; you can go to the Lisburn in the Irish Linen center (Irish Linen Centre) to buy. Throughout the handicraft inn factory or shops you can find a tweed Nebuchadnezzar sweater made of wool by hand.

Accommodation: In Northern Ireland there are many kinds of different types of accommodation site to choose from. You can enjoy the traditional local life in Ireland in the rural farms and fields. Or choose a cheap youth hostels, camping trailers, tent shelter in parks and at your own expense. In addition, there are luxurious castle, the new hotel and family housing. Boarding dormitory (Guesthouses) and the bed and breakfast of B&B style accommodation for you to provide a closer service.


In the cultural life, the traditional Irish music and dance loved by people around the world. Music melody is accompanied by a road trip. You will meet outgoing gentle notes alto horn performer in the streets. In Irish pubs and clubs, you will appreciate modern dance, or Irish traditional melody.

The opera house in Belfast, the outstanding composer’s show allows you to enjoy the romantic ambience. In very modern waterfront hall, as well as antique Grand Theater and the Ulster Hall, the annual dance drama staged all kinds of music. Held in November each year, "the Belfast Arts Festival" is the one of the few large-scale arts festival in United Kingdom, making people's cultural life colorful.



There are three airports in Northern Ireland: Belfast International airport, Belfast city airport and the City of Derry airport. The traffic is very convenient.


Railways often have price promotions, for example ,3 pounds will render a chance for you to go anywhere in Northern Ireland with no time restriction on Sunday。Somehow in some certain time and route, two guys can buy just one ticket as long as they are in company and guarantee they would come back together that day. However, the board time will change in some specific period of time. So please take more attention. Water transportation

In Northern Ireland there are many ferry stations, they are very convenient for people's connection between the islands.

The best travel time:

Northern Ireland belongs to the temperate maritime climate, mild climate, moderate rainfall, it is located in high latitudes, summer is cool, and winter is more mild and humid (summer is about 18 ~25 ° c, winter is about 2~5 ° c). Because of this wet weather in Northern Ireland, people created a world of emeralds; bring various high-quality dairy products to the children's survival.









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来源:新浪科技 编译:唐风 时间:2011―05―05

北京时间5月5日凌晨消息,华为今天宣布,该公司已经聘用了曾在诺基亚和三星都担任过高管的马克一米奇逊(Mark Mitchinson),他将负责拓展华为在英国和爱尔兰市场上的手机业务。



在被华为聘用以前,米奇逊担任消费电子产品零售商Carphone Warehouse负责批发和经销业务的董事总经理。






经过实践者、学者、顾问和会计专家之间的辩论,内部审计师公会颁布了他们新的内部审计的定义,突出一个较广的范围,现在明确包括咨询服务。它指出:内部审计是一种独立客观的保证和咨询活动,旨在增加价值和改善组织的运营。它可以通过系统化、规范化的方法,评价和改进风险管理、控制和治理过程的有效性,从而帮助组织实现其目标(IIA,1999)。 其中,咨询服务的定义是:咨询及相关客户服务活动。性质范围与客户达成一致,同时它的目的是增加价值并改进组织的治理、风险管理和控制流程。例子包括咨询、建议、协助和培训(IIA,2004:7)。

内部审计定义的改变增加了内部审计的范畴,即包括咨询活动。然而,尽管承认和澄清内部审计的咨询功能,随后很少有研究关注咨询服务的作用。因此,我们的目标是在这篇文章中通过英国/爱尔兰和意大利IIA成员的样本,提供内部审计咨询活动定义变化的性质、程度和后果的比较。这两个自我完成的比较问卷调查结果揭示了在这三个国家自1999年起,审计咨询水平和活动范围的显著提升,但这一变化在英国/爱尔兰更大。虽然这些国家之间有相似之处,但更多的英国/爱尔兰成员参与到变革管理和项目管理,而意大利多数成员都参与模型设计和实施。在这些国家,内部审计师同样正在经历着收益和挫折。 研究问题:



问题3:如果存在差异或相似之处,那么它们是什么以及可能的原因是什么? IIA英国和爱尔兰成员的问卷调查开始于2004年3月(Woodward & Selim,2005)。问卷随专业杂志一同发放。问卷的推荐信由研究所的行政长官签署。同时,第二作者邀请了参与咨询实践活动的会员。研究所成员于两星期内返还他们完成的回答问卷并获得报酬。一共195份有效问卷被采用,回应率达19%。









国际展望 1997年01期






















Unit 11 Land, People and History (Ireland)



1. The difference between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland


2. Unique geographic features of Ireland (爱尔兰独特的地理特征)

3. The natural environment (自然环境)

4. Temperate climate (温带气候)

5. The expansion of tourist industry (旅游业的扩张)

6. Intensive farming (精耕细作)

7. Emigration (移民出境)

8. The Great Famine of 1845—1848 (1845-1848年的“大饥荒”)

9. The Celtic Tiger (凯尔特老虎)

10. The English Colonisation of Ireland (英国人对爱尔兰的殖民统治)

11. A warrior culture and history (尚武文化和历史)

12. Campaigns for Home Rule (自治运动)

13. Irish Independence in 1921 (1921年爱尔兰的独立)


1. The difference between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland


1) Northern Ireland is a province of the UK, while the Republic of Ireland is an independent nation in its own right. 北爱尔兰是英国的一个省,共和国是一个独立的国家。

2) The area covering the Republic of Ireland is 5 times of that of Northern Ireland.


3) Most of the people in Northern Ireland are Protestants while the majority of the people in the Republic are Catholics. 大多数爱尔兰共和国的人是天主教徒。

2. Unique geographic features of Ireland (爱尔兰独特的地理特征)

1) Ireland is situated off the northwest coast of Great Britain, and Scotland is across the narrow strait of water(与苏格兰一水之隔).

2) In terms of geographical elevations, the island of Ireland resembles a tea saucer, with a large central lowland comprised of limestone (从地表上来看,爱尔兰像一个茶盘,中间是大片的石灰石低地).

3. The natural environment (自然环境)

1) Ireland is an intense green, or rather mixture of greens, which changes little between summer and winter; the grasslands flourish in all seasons. 爱尔兰有着大片大片的绿色草场,而且四季不变。

2) Ireland has a smaller range of native flora and fauna than elsewhere in Europe.


4. Temperate climate(温带气候)

1) Ireland is not very hot during summer, nor is it very cold in winter.

2) Snow and ice are rare.

3) Ireland is almost always damp.

5. Economy

1) The expansion of tourist industry (旅游业的扩张)

① Over-development of many resorts has led to a despoliation of many landscapes. 许多风景区的过度开发使环境受到破坏。

② The expansion of the tourist industry is particularly dangerous for the environment. 旅游业的发展对环境的破坏尤为危险

2) Intensive farming (精耕细作)

New methods of intensive farming have led to pollution of springs and lakes.

3) The Celtic Tiger (凯尔特虎,“虎虎有生气的爱尔兰”经济)

The economy of Ireland has been booming in recent years and thus it has become the “Celtic Tiger.”由于爱尔兰的经济在加入欧盟之后持续高速增长,又由于爱尔兰人的祖先为凯尔特人,故被称为“凯尔特虎”,正如新加坡、香港、台湾与韩国等国家和地区在经济持续高速增长时期被称为“小龙”

6. Emigration (移民出境)

Emigration took place before the Great Famine, mostly from the northern part of Ireland. The emigrants went to the New World (Canada and America) to seek better economic position.

7. The Great Famine of 1845—1848 (1845-1848年的“大饥荒”)

The Great Famine took place from 1845—1848 when successive potato crops failed and many people of Ireland starved to death, or died of the diseases which preyed on malnutrition Many left the country for the New World. The Great Famine became a watershed in Irish history, not merely because there was mass starvation and emigration, but also because the British government appeared to be indifferent to the fate of the poorest people in its nearest colony. Naturally this period is characterized by campaigns for national independence and land reform.1845年至1848年,爱尔兰重要农作物马铃薯连年受灾减产,许多人被饿死,或死于营养不良造成的疾病。许多人离开这里前往新大陆。“大饥荒”是爱尔兰历史上的分水岭事件,不仅是因为有大量的人饿死和大规模的移民, 还因为 英国政府似乎对离它最近的殖民地的穷苦百姓的命运毫不关心。很自然地,这一段时期,爱尔兰人纷纷掀起了民族独立运动和土地改革的运动。

Result: the immediate result of the Great Famine was a decimation of the population(人口锐减), so the Republic of Ireland is a young country with more than half of the people under the age of 25. 大饥荒的直接后果是人口大量减少,因此爱尔兰共和国是一个年轻的国家,半数以上的人在25

8. The Celtic and English Colonisation of Ireland (英国人对爱尔兰的殖民统治)

1) Ireland has been invaded by Celts, Christians, Vikings, Normans and English. Celtic invaders may have come to Ireland as early as the 6th century BC. Celts were a warrior culture (尚武文化), making swift attacks in horse-drawn chariots (马拉战车). Much like the Homeric warriors in the Iliad, they had their own saga. Celts’ language survived through history and Irish is the first official language of the Republic of Ireland.

•凯尔特人尚武、爱好冒险, 有着许多充满幻想的古老传奇 , 坐着马拉的战车快速对敌人发起进攻. 就象古希腊荷马史诗《伊利亚特》中的勇士一样,他们也有自己的英雄传奇。


2) English invasion of Ireland: in 1541, Henry VIII declared himself king of Ireland---the first English monarch to do so. 英格兰人入侵爱尔兰: •1541年,亨利8世宣称自己是爱尔兰的国王,这是英格兰国王中第一个这么做的。

3) Queen Elizabeth I’s army defeated the Irish at the Battle of Kinsale in 1601. For the first time, the entire island was controlled by a strong English central government.


4) In 1782, the Irish parliament was granted independence.



5) After the defeat of the 1798 rebellion, the London government took drastic action to curtain any notions of Irish independence. 1798年反抗被镇压后,伦敦政府采取了强硬措施压制爱尔兰的独立运动

6) The Irish parliament was voted out of existence in 1800. 1800年,爱尔兰国会被取缔。(1801年,爱尔兰与大不列颠联合为一体。)

9. Campaigns for Home Rule (自治运动)

A constitutional movement seeking Home Rule was instituted up (提出) by Isaac Butt in 1870. The Home Rule Bill was finally passed in 1914.1870年,艾萨克 · 巴特提出地方自治的口号,于是掀起了一场宪政运动,号召建立在帝国制度内的爱尔兰国会 。自治法案最终于1914年得以通过。

10. Sinn Fein (新芬党)

Arthur Griffith developed a political party in the period of 1905-08 known as Sinn Fein---meaning “we ourselves” in the Irish language. The Sinn Fein policy was that Irish MPs should withdraw from Westminster and establish an independent parliament. Traditionally, Sinn Fein had close links with the Irish Republican brotherhood, a secret society struggling for national independence.亚瑟·格里菲斯于1905一-1908年期间创建的新芬党也想要建立一个独立的议会。

11. The Easter Rising of 1916 (1916年的复活节起义)

It was a rebellion by Irish nationalists against British rule on 24 April 1916 (Easter Monday). The Irish Volunteers, led by Patrick Pearse and the Irish Citizen Army, led by James Connolly, staged the uprising. The British crushed the rising within a week and executed its leaders. A wave of nationalist sentiment produced an electoral victory for Sinn Fein in 1918.1916年的复活节起义也是爱尔兰的一次独立运动, 起义也是以失败而告终。

12. Irish Independence in 1921 (1921年爱尔兰的独立)

In December, 1921 the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed, with the result that 26 counties gained independence as the new Irish Free State. Six counties in Ulster are known as Northern Ireland.


Unit 14 Irish Culture: Language, Literature and Arts



1. Erse and the colonial policy (爱尔兰盖耳语和殖民政策)

2. Hiberno-English (爱尔兰英语)

3. Oral culture tradition (口头文化传统)

4. Folk heritage (民间传统)

5. Irish literature (爱尔兰的文学)

6. Nobel Prize winners for Literature (诺贝尔文学奖的获得者)

7. Irish music and dance (爱尔兰的音乐、舞蹈) and Riverdance (“河之舞”)

8. Popular sports in Ireland (爱尔兰流行的体育运动)and Hurling (爱尔兰式曲棍球)

9. Science and technology in Ireland (爱尔兰的科学技术)

10. The Irish identity in the world (爱尔兰人在世界上的身份特征)


1. Erse and the colonial policy (爱尔兰盖耳语和殖民政策)

The Irish people spoke their own language, called Irish or Erse.

However, the English colonial policy brought much pressure to stop the Irish people speaking their own language and to learn standard English instead. Until the mid-19th century Irish was still spoken widely by the peasant classes. The death blow (致命打击) to the Irish language was the Great Famine of 1845-1849. In the late 19th century, an attempt was made to revive (复兴,恢复) the use of the Irish language among the middle and

professional classes. 爱尔兰人讲他们自己的语言,称爱尔兰语或厄尔斯语。然而,英国的殖民政策不断地施压,以阻止爱尔兰人讲他们自己的语言,而要求他们学标准英语。直到19世纪中期,爱尔兰语还被农民阶级广泛使用。1845-1848年的大饥荒对爱尔兰语带来了致命的打击. 19世纪末期,有人试图恢复爱尔兰语在中产阶级和职业阶层中的应用。After the first Irish national state was set up in 1922, a concerted, official attempt was made to make Irish once again the national language. And Irish was made compulsory subject in schools.

2. Hiberno-English (爱尔兰英语)

Despite such official pressures, the language that is spoken universally in the Republic of Ireland is a version of standard English known as Hiberno-English. 尽管有官方的这些压力,如今在爱尔兰广泛使用的语言是标准英语的另一版本,被称为“爱尔兰英语” 。

3. Oral culture tradition (口头文化传统)

Ireland is a culture which operates most obviously on an oral level. Almost inevitably, an Irish person will take an opportunity to talk even if pressed for time (时间紧迫). The basis for this is in the original peasant culture, which makes the transfer from an oral to a written culture only slowly in the late 19th century. But even among the most literate classes, great value is extended to the ability to talk spontaneously and with grace and force. Oral culture is one key to Ireland’s very effective business and diplomatic efforts. 爱尔兰是一个注重口头文化的国家,爱尔兰人会抓住每一个机会与人交谈,即使是时间紧迫也是如此. 口头文化传统起源于最早的农民文化,直到19世纪末期,这种口头文化才逐渐缓慢地向书面文化过渡。但是,即使是在受过最好教育的阶层,人们还是非常重视自然,优雅和有力的谈话能力. 爱尔兰的商业和外交努力都很有效,其中口头文化是一大关键原因。

4. Folk heritage (民间传统)

Ireland is a traditional culture which has derived from its rich folk heritage.

5. Irish literature (爱尔兰的文学)

In Ireland, writers and poets are honored most. Writers may publish in either the Irish or the English language. The first poem identified as “Irish” is the saga of the Tain, which was transmitted orally for centuries before it was written down(在爱尔兰,作家和诗人最受尊敬。作家可以用爱尔兰语,也可以用英语来出版。被认为是第一首爱尔兰语诗歌“泰恩”传奇,已经在口头上流传了几个世纪后才用文字记载下来).

Famous writers include Jonathan Swift乔纳森·斯威夫特 (1667-1745)(famous satire Gulliver’s Travels著名的讽刺作品《格列佛游记》1726), Laurence Sterne 劳伦斯·斯特恩(1713-1768) (English novel Tristram Shandy《项狄传》), playwright Richard Sheridan理查德·谢力丹(1751-1816) (The School for Scandal《丑闻学校》), playwright, poet and novelist Oscar Wilde 奥斯卡·王尔德(1856-1900) [play: The Importance of Being Earnest《认真的重要性》(1895), poetry, The Ballad of Reading Gaol《雷丁狱之歌》(1898) and novel The Picture of

Dorian Gray《道林·格雷的画像》] and novelist James Joyce詹姆斯·乔伊斯(1882-1941) (novels: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man《一个年轻艺术家的画像》and Ulysses《尤利西斯》)

6. Nobel Prize winners for Literature (诺贝尔文学奖的获得者)

The Republic of Ireland has been the home of 4 winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature: 爱尔兰共和国有4位诺贝尔文学奖得主。

1) the poets, W.B. Yeats (1865-1929) and 2) Seamus Heaney (1939-); 3) the playwrights, George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) and 4) Samuel Beckett(1906-1989) 这4位是诗人和剧作家叶芝,诗人西默斯·希尼;剧作家乔治·肖伯纳和塞缪尔·贝克特。

Bernard Shaw’s famous play Pygmalion《卖花女》has been adapted into a film My Fair Lady. 肖伯纳著名的戏剧卖花女曾经被改编成电影 《窈窕淑女》 Samuel is famous for his great absurdist play Waiting for Godot塞缪尔因他的荒诞派戏剧《等待戈多》而出名.

The works of James Joyce and Samuel Becket are self-consciously avant-garde, playing with different dialects and styles of English as if they were part of a game(乔伊斯以及贝克特的作品有自我意识的先锋派风格,运用不同的方言和文体,就像在玩游戏).

7. Irish music and dance (爱尔兰的音乐、舞蹈)

1) Riverdance (“河之舞”)

Riverdance is a very popular form of dancing based on Ireland's intricate folk dances which are rearranged and modernized and adapted onto current stage performance. Dancing is traditionally part of Irish culture. It is usually accompanied by the Irish pipe and fiddle. The music usually sounds fast and furious. Most of the action is from the waist down, with the arms held rigidly at the sides. 舞蹈是爱尔兰文化传统 的一部分。河之舞是一种非常流行于舞台的舞蹈,是由爱尔兰的极其复杂的民间舞蹈,经过重新编排和革新形成的。通常用爱尔兰风向和小提琴来伴奏。音乐通常听起来又快又疯狂。舞蹈的大多数动作都是腰部以下来完成,而胳膊僵硬地放在两侧。

2).The Irish pipe(爱尔兰风笛)

The Irish pipe is distinctive. Unlike the Scottish bagpipe(风笛), which is blown, the Irish pipe is played by holding the airbag (安全气袋) under the arm and pumping(抽吸) it with the elbow. In tone(音调), the Irish pipes are quieter and more musical than those of the Scots, which are employed as war-pipes(战笛). The Irish pipes are for private entertainment, and dancing.

爱尔兰风笛很独特,与苏格兰风笛不同,苏格兰风笛是用吹的,而爱尔兰风笛是表演者在胳膊肘下夹一个气囊,靠胳膊挤压气囊来给风笛供气. 从音调上来讲,爱尔兰风笛比苏格兰风笛更平和,更悦耳。苏格兰风笛常被用做战笛,爱尔兰风笛用于私人娱乐和跳舞。

* Ireland is not very noted for visual culture (视觉文化)compared with its literature and music.

8. Popular sports in Ireland (爱尔兰流行的体育运动)

Soccer or football, rugby, cricket and tennis owe their origins to Britain. The newest and most fashionable ball game in Ireland is golf.Other widely popular sports are sailing and running. But that nearest the Irish heart must be the sport of horse-racing because they can place a bet for the occasion.英式足球、橄榄球、板球和网球都是起源于英国的。爱尔兰 最新的和最流行的球类运动是高尔夫球。其它广泛流行的体育运动还有帆船运动和赛跑 。但是爱尔兰人最喜欢的运动是赛马,因为他们可以在赛马会上赌马。

Hurling (爱尔兰式曲棍球)

This sport is the most natively Irish game is hurling. It is played by two teams of fifteen players(每队15人), with a ball like a hockey ball which is struck by wooden sticks with a curved, rounded end or boss. 爱尔兰式曲棍球是爱尔兰的本土运动。它由两队参与,每队15人, 球形与曲棍球hockey的一样,球棍的头是弧形或圆形的.

9. Science and technology in Ireland (爱尔兰的科学技术)

Distinguished names:

1) Robert Boyle罗伯特·波伊耳 (1627-1691):the “father of chemisty” 出生于爱尔兰的英国化学家,被称为“化学之父”.

2) John Tyndall 约翰·廷道尔(1820-1893): inventor of the fireman’s respirator and etc.发明了消防面具等。

3) Lord Kelvin 凯尔文勋爵 (1824-1907): renowned for his work on transatlantic cables以跨大西洋电缆工程著称。

4) Charles Parsons 查尔斯·帕逊(1854-1931): invented the steam turbine engine蒸汽涡轮发动机

5) Ernest T. Walton E.T.S.沃尔顿( (1903-1995) of Trinity College, Dublin won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1951.

10. The Irish identity in the world (爱尔兰人在世界上的身份特征)

Ireland is a very people-oriented (以人为本的) society, which regards the family as central to its values. Even today, the Irish still have a residual(残留的) resentment (怨恨,愤恨) against the British, and against any large nation which they feel might try to bully (欺负,凌辱) them.

The Irish diaspora (爱尔兰裔)

The Irish diaspora, as it has been called, is a scattering of Irish people across the world, usually as the result of dire conditions at home-famine, foreign domination, and poverty. As a result, Irish people can today be found in

significant concentrations in many countries. In fact, it is hard to go anywhere and not find Irish people. 爱尔兰裔人是指散居世界各地爱尔兰人,通常是由于其家乡的恶劣环境导致他们移民---饥荒、受外来人口的统治、贫穷等原因。 结果,现在在许多国家都会发现有大量的爱尔兰人聚居的地方。事实上,很难找到没有爱尔兰人的地方.




从历史的角度来看, 英语对爱尔兰人来说是外来语。爱尔兰人的祖先是盖尔人,其母语是盖尔语。但是. 英语文学史上许多伟大的作家, 如王尔德、萧伯纳、乔雯、叶芝、贝克特等都是爱尔兰人。而许多爱尔兰作家如斯威夫特等甚至被当成是英国人。一些人认为在运用英语写作和进行语言交流方面.


爱尔兰人说英语开始于1 6 世纪晚期。从此以后,爱尔兰人开始“ 玩” 英 语,并且自己创造了英语的变体— 爱尔兰英语。

具有讽刺意味的是. 爱尔兰人从没能以恰当的方式学习英语. 或者确切地说,从没有人认真地、恰当地教授他们英语。尽管英国人征服了爱尔兰,但是他们从没有费心给当地人介绍他们的文化和语言。因此,英国征服爱尔兰的最初一段时间里,爱尔兰人继续讲盖尔语。但后来, 爱尔兰人明白了要想与英国人做生意, 就必须学会运用英语进行交流。从1831 年起,爱尔兰所有的学校教学都使用英语进行。

由于英国人对教授英语没有兴趣. 因此爱尔兰人只得开始通过阅读自学英语。他们读的书大多都是百年前的过时的书。这样就导致了爱尔兰英语的发音是过时的发音。直到今天,爱尔兰英语保留了许多英国英语的发音。

比如爱尔兰人象18 世纪英国人一样,把sea[si: ] 发成[sei],以便与w a y 同 韵; 英语中指冷笑者、讥笑者而今天这种意义只用于爱尔兰。爱尔兰人使用古 老的英语词docket,而不用当代词ticket。爱尔兰人通过阅读古书学习英语的另一结果是, 他们经常使用较长的、复杂的词汇比如, 他们很叮能用terminology来代替words;这是因为书面体英语比日语体英语更为正式。如果他们不是从书本里学习英语,而是从老师那儿学习英语. 那么他们说话、写作可能会随便得多。 尽管爱尔兰人采用了英国英语的词汇, 但他们仍保待了他们自己的语法、语音、习语他们所采纳的语法是从那些居住在爱尔卜的社会低阶层的英国居民那儿学来的。而这些人的语法知识又非常贫乏。受此影响,爱尔兰英语的语法也比较混乱。爱尔兰英语巾经常出现动词现在时第三人称单数后不变的情况。当爱尔兰人听不懂英语时,他们就回到盖尔语上。盖尔语至今仍在影响英语爱尔兰英语中许多从词汇。盖尔语中没有现在完成式因此爱尔兰人对这个时态颇为苦恼比如,他们说 I am after finishing my tea,而不说 I have finished my tea.



第二部分 爱尔兰

第十章 地理与历史



3______仍是爱尔兰最重要的地形特征,在所有山脉中随处可见,并___________________。 4爱尔兰的气候被描绘成“_______________”。冬天的极冷、漫长的霜冻、大雪以及夏天的酷热都很少见。



(1) (2)

(3) (4)



9爱尔兰是欧洲最为______________的国家之一。如今,93%的爱尔兰人是__________教徒。 10爱尔兰圣公会是最大的______________。